61
Jackie L White, Bradley J Ingebrethsen: Smoking article with dual burn rate fuel element. R J Reynolds Tobacco Company, Grover M Myers, David G Conlin, September 20, 1988: US04771795 (120 worldwide citation)

The present invention preferably relates to a smoking article which is capable of producing substantial quantities of aerosol, both initially and over the useful life of the product, without significant thermal degradation of the aerosol former and without the presence of substantial pyrolysis or in ...


62
Harold J Vinegar, Scott Lee Wellington, Eric Pierre de Rouffignac, John Michael Karanikas, Ilya Emil Berchenko, George Leo Stegemeier, Kevin Albert Maher, Etuan Zhang, Gordon Thomas Shahin, James Louis Menotti, John Matthew Coles, Thomas David Fowler, Charles Robert Keedy, Ajay Madhav Madgavkar, Robert Martijn Van Hardeveld, Robert Charles Ryan, Lanny Gene Schoeling, Frederick Gordon Carl: In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation. Shell Oil Company, September 21, 2010: US07798221 (119 worldwide citation)

An oil shale formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. Heat input into the formation may be controlled to raise the temperature of portion at a selected rate during ...


63
Dennis Boyd, George Porter: Synthetic smoking product. Gallaher, Brisebois & Kruger, March 16, 1976: US03943941 (118 worldwide citation)

A tobacco substitute which consists essentially of a complete fuel and at least one volatile substance impregnating said fuel, said volatile substance being capable of distilling or subliming without chemical change, and said fuel consisting essentially of combustible, flexible and self coherent fib ...


64
Douglas R Piotter: Pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials. Phillips Petroleum Company, Williams Phillips & Umphlett, June 5, 1990: US04931171 (117 worldwide citation)

A process for the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials at an elevated temperature or an elevated temperature and an elevated pressure in which a fuel is burned in the presence of a combustion supporting material, in an amount sufficient to supply at least the stoichiometric amount of oxygen for combu ...


65
Nicholas Kalmar: Process for the in situ recovery of both petroleum and inorganic mineral content of an oil shale deposit. Owen Wickersham & Erickson, March 1, 1983: US04375302 (117 worldwide citation)

A process for obtaining useful products from an oil shale formation that has intermixed nahcolite and dawsonite. An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, containing a surfactant, is injected into the formation via wells. The sodium hydroxide reacts with the nahcolite to yield a sodium carbonate solu ...


66
Ray L Geddes, Harry D Robinson Jr: Direct quench apparatus. Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Morgan Finnegan Pine Foley & Lee, May 25, 1976: US03959420 (114 worldwide citation)

An apparatus for effecting direct quench of pyrolysis furnace effluent. A quench tube sized somewhat larger in diameter than the furnace effluent pipe is provided with an upper inverted ring and an external housing surrounding the terminus of the furnace effluent pipe, the quench tube and the inlet ...


67
Haydn S Davies, James H Garstang, Cyril Timmins: Vaporization and gasification of hydrocarbon feedstocks. British Gas Corporation, Larson and Taylor, August 23, 1983: US04400182 (113 worldwide citation)

Heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, e.g. gas oils, are vaporized and subsequently gasified at high temperatures without pyrolytic degradation by first admixing the hydrocarbon with a hot gaseous reactant, e.g. product gas or steam, to bring the temperature of the mixture above that of the dew point of the ...


68
George Leo Stegemeier, Gary Lee Beer, Etuan Zhang: Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure. Shell Oil Company, January 12, 2010: US07644765 (109 worldwide citation)

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the f ...


69
Raymond S Kasevich, Myer Kolker, Arthur S Dwyer: In situ radio frequency selective heating process. Raytheon Company, M D Bartlett, J D Pannone, H W Arnold, February 20, 1979: US04140179 (109 worldwide citation)

The process and apparatus for extracting the products of kerogen in situ from an oil shale body by supplying energy selectively to the kerogen by high frequency electric fields in the frequency range between 100 kilohertz and 1000 megahertz at an intensity which heats the kerogen to a temperature ra ...


70
Verbeek Wolfgang: Production of shaped articles of homogeneous mixtures of silicon carbide and nitride. Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, Burgess Dinklage & Sprung, December 10, 1974: US3853567 (109 worldwide citation)

A shaped article such as a fiber comprising a homogeneous mixture of silicon carbide and nitride is produced by pyrolyzing at about 200.degree. to 800.degree.C a silazane to produce a fusible carbosilazane resin, forming the resin into fiber and heating the fiber in an inert atmosphere to about 800 ...



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