11
Lawrence B Owen, John F Schatz, Usman Ahmed: Method of in-situ retorting of carbonaceous material for recovery of organic liquids and gases. Terra Tek, M Reid Russell, May 24, 1983: US04384613 (248 worldwide citation)

The method of the present invention involves a two-phase process for in-situ retorting and recovery of carbonaceous material contained within typical subterranean tar sand formations, and includes formation of conventional arrays of in-seam ducts, and positioning heating devices to heat a section of ...


12
Ueber Russell C, Van Meurs Peter, Brew Jerke R: Laterally expanding oil shale permeabilization. Shell Oil Company, September 18, 1973: US3759328 (247 worldwide citation)

An improved process of permeabilizing and recovering water soluble and/or heat sensitive minerals and hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation containing said minerals by forming a cavern and vertically expanding it by contacting the cavern roof with a hot aqueous fluid while also causing horizontal ...


13
Ruel C Terry: Methods of fluidized production of coal in situ. In Situ Technology, June 6, 1978: US04093025 (244 worldwide citation)

A method of producing combustible gases, synthetic crude oils, coal chemicals and heat from coal in situ utilizes the combined teachings of in situ gasification, liquefaction and pyrolysis.


14
Clarence I Justheim: Method of retorting oil shale by velocity flow of super-heated air. Justheim Pertroleum Company, Mallinckrodt & Mallinckrodt, May 24, 1983: US04384614 (239 worldwide citation)

Oil shale is retorted, preferably in situ, by passing velocity flow of super-heated air through one or more conduit-like passages in direct contact with exposed surfaces of oil shale. Kerogen pyrolysis products are recovered by condensation of the vapors and collection of the condensate and by colle ...


15
Ruel C Terry: Producing thin seams of coal in situ. In Situ Technology, Gary M Polumbus, March 8, 1977: US04010800 (229 worldwide citation)

A method of extracting energy and chemical values from coal in situ including the steps of establishing passages among two or more coal seams underground and the surface of the ground wherein one coal seam is consumed by in situ combustion with the hot exit gases diverted through a second seam of co ...


16
Calhoun G Jeambey: System for recovery of petroleum from petroleum impregnated media. Edwards Development, Knobbe Martens Olson & Bear, April 3, 1990: US04912971 (229 worldwide citation)

A conjoint probe apparatus having an adjustable extendable probe end for embedding in the porous media for in situ sensing of changes in the dielectric constant of the carbonaceous constituents undergoing microwave pyrolysis, and a mechanism for indicating the sensed changes, for adjusting the radia ...


17
Ruel C Terry: Methods of fluidized production of coal in situ. In Situ Technology, May 16, 1978: US04089372 (228 worldwide citation)

A method of producing combustible gases, synthetic crude oils, coal chemicals and heat from coal in situ utilizes the combined teachings of in situ gasification, liquefaction and pyrolysis.


18
Donald E Garrett: Process for in situ conversion of coal or the like into oil and gas. November 8, 1977: US04057293 (228 worldwide citation)

This application discloses a process for accomplishing in situ retorting of coal, or a similar hydrocarbon by constructing a substantially impervious retorting area, and then fragmenting the coal to provide a substantially homogeneous, porous mass. After pyrolysis due to the introduction of oxygen-c ...


19
Liming Dai, Shaoming Huang: Multilayer carbon nanotube films and method of making the same. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Campell, Sughrue Mion PLLC, October 26, 2004: US06808746 (224 worldwide citation)

This invention relates to a process for the preparation of a substrate-free aligned nanotube film, comprising: (a) synthesizing a layer of aligned carbon nanotubes on a quartz glass substrate by pyrolysis of a carbon-containing material, in the presence of a suitable catalyst for nanotube formation; ...


20
Lincoln F Elkins: Modified in situ retorting of oil shale. The Standard Oil Company, Salvatore P Pace, Herbert D Knudsen, Larry W Evans, August 30, 1983: US04401163 (216 worldwide citation)

Hot retorting gas for pyrolysis of kerogen in a bed of rubblized oil shale is supplied by a pressure pulsing technique.



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