1
Jon Opsal, Youxian Wen: Apparatus for optical measurements of nitrogen concentration in thin films. Therma Wave, Stallman & Pollock, June 24, 2003: US06583876 (15 worldwide citation)

A system is disclosed for evaluating nitrogen levels in thin gate dielectric layers formed on semiconductor samples. In one embodiment, a tool is disclosed which includes both a narrow band ellipsometer and a broadband spectrometer for measuring the sample. The narrowband ellipsometer provides very ...


2
Larry A McDaniel: Nitration processes. Jerome A Gross, Jerome A Gross, November 4, 1986: US04621157 (9 worldwide citation)

The present invention relates to improvements in processes of preparing dinitrated aromatic compounds, particularly dinitrated aniline and dinitrated substituted aniline compounds, employing relatively dilute and then more concentrated nitric acid as the nitrating agent.


3
Heinrich Hermann, Jurgen Gebauer: Recovery of nitric acid from nitration processes. Josef Meissner & Co, Cohen Pontani Lieberman & Pavane, May 26, 1998: US05756867 (9 worldwide citation)

A process for the removal and recovery of nitric acid, sulphuric acid and nitrous oxide (NO.sub.x) from crude dinitrotoluene (DNT) obtained by nitrating with a nitrating acid, a benzene derivative selected from the group consisting of tolulene or mononitrotoluene (after separation from the dinitroto ...


4
Jon Opsal, Youxian Wen: Apparatus for optical measurements of nitrogen concentration in thin films. Therma Wave, Stallman & Pollock, April 19, 2005: US06882421 (7 worldwide citation)

Systems and methods are disclosed for evaluating nitrogen levels in thin gate dielectric layers formed on semiconductor samples. In one embodiment, a tool is disclosed which includes both a narrow band ellipsometer and a broadband spectrometer for measuring the sample. The narrowband ellipsometer pr ...


5
Heinrich Hermann, Jürgen Gebauer, Peter Konieczny, Mirko Händel: Recovery of nitrating acid mixtures from nitration processes. Josef Meissner & Co KG, Woodard Emhardt Moriarty McNett & Henry, December 30, 2008: US07470826 (7 worldwide citation)

The invention relates to a process for removing and recovering nitrating acid mixtures, in particular nitric acid, sulphuric acid and oxides of nitrogen, from the nitrated crude products occurring in the nitration of nitratable aromatic compounds after the nitrating acid has been separated off, by a ...


6
Jon Opsal, Youxian Wen: Apparatus for optical measurements of nitrogen concentration in thin films. Therma Wave, Stallman & Pollock, August 31, 2004: US06784993 (7 worldwide citation)

A system is disclosed for evaluating nitrogen levels in thin gate dielectric layers formed on semiconductor samples. In one embodiment, a tool is disclosed which includes both a narrow band ellipsometer and a broadband spectrometer for measuring the sample. The narrowband ellipsometer provides very ...


7
Hermann Heinrich Dr, Gebauer Juergen, Konieczny Peter Dr, Haendel Mirko Dr: Recovery of the nitration acid mixtures from nitration processes. Meissner & Co Kg Josef, May 2, 2007: EP1780195-A1 (3 worldwide citation)

Removing and recovering nitrating acid mixtures of nitric acid, sulphuric acid and oxides of nitrogen, from the nitrated crude products occurring in the nitration of nitratable aromatic compounds, after the nitrating acid has been separated off, by a multistage extraction process involves one stage ...


8
Riehle Claus Dr, Brand Marcus, Hilgers Frank, Jaeger Klaus Dr, Giesen Rainer, Hamacher Heinz Josef, Wolf Udo Dr: Process for controll of nitration processes with online spectrometer. Bayer, August 11, 2004: EP1445246-A2 (2 worldwide citation)

A process to nitrate toluene employs a computer-controlled matrix-specific calibration model and a process model. The process employs near infrared (NIR) in-line spectral measurement of the respective nitration stages. The spectral results are evaluated using a computer-based, matrix-specific calibr ...


9
Walter Ulrich, Dichtl Gottfried: Process and installation for concentrating waste sulphuric acids from nitration processes. Qvf Engineering, January 9, 2008: EP1876142-A1 (2 worldwide citation)

Recovery of diluted and contaminated sulfuric acid wastes from nitration processes comprises subjecting the nitrating acid waste mixture containing 80 wt.% of sulfuric acid and water, nitric acid, nitrous acid and nitro organic compounds, preferably dinitrotoluene and mononitro toluene as further co ...


10
Peter Golding, David Mearns Duncan, Anthony John Bellamy, Alessandro Enzo Contini, Eleftheria Dossi: Polyphosphazenes. The Secretary of State for Defence, Dean W Russell, Elena S Polovnikova, Kilpatrick Townsend & Stockton, January 31, 2017: US09556314 (1 worldwide citation)

Substituted poly(phosphazene) compounds comprising a combination of units having one or more of the structures (i) to (iii) wherein: the combination comprises R1 and R2; each R1, is independently an optionally substituted alkyl- or alkyl ether-based side chain containing an isocyanate-reactive moiet ...