41
Heinz Houben, Hans U Petzoldt, Joachim Stegemann: Process for producing ethanol. Fried Krupp, Sughrue Mion Zinn Macpeak and Seas, September 8, 1987: US04692218 (136 worldwide citation)

Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously producing various forms of alcohol, including ethanol, which can likewise be withdrawn from the apparatus simultaneously. To this end, successive columns in the individual processing stages, each of which includes distillation, rectification, puri ...


42
Jeffrey P Knapp: Low energy extractive distillation process for producing anhydrous ethanol. University of Massachusetts, Welsh & Katz, July 30, 1991: US05035776 (132 worldwide citation)

A thermally-integrated extractive distillation process for recovering anhydrous ethanol from fermentation or synthetic feedstocks has a distillation train of four columns. Two columns are preconcentrators operated in parallel. The remaining columns are an extractive distillation dehydrating tower, a ...


43
Larry W Browder, James C Medlin, Art T Spaugh Jr: Extraction process for removal of impurities from terephthalic acid filtrate. Eastman Kodak Company, Charles R Martin, William P Heath Jr, July 3, 1990: US04939297 (132 worldwide citation)

A method for removing impurities from an oxidative terephthalic acid synthesis mother liquor containing acetic acid, water, corrosion metals, a metal catalyst and organic impurities, comprising the steps of (a) removing from the mother liquor by evaporation from 50-95% of the acetic acid and water c ...


44
Jorge Heller, Robert F Helwing, Donald W Penhale: Polymers of di- (and higher functionality) ketene acetals and polyols. SRI International, Edward B Gregg, Donovan J DeWitt, December 8, 1981: US04304767 (125 worldwide citation)

This invention concerns ortho ester polymers having repeating mer units represented by the general formulas: ##STR1## The polymers are formed by a condensation reaction between ketene acetals having a functionality of two or more and hydroxyl containing compounds having a functionality of two or mor ...


45
Allan T Van Huisen, Paul E Griffin: Geothermal petroleum refining. Poms Smith Lande & Rose, February 3, 1981: US04248306 (124 worldwide citation)

Petroleum is distilled into fractions and/or cracked to form gas and/or lighter oil fractions by pumping the oil into the boiler section of a unit disposed in a hot, deep, subterranean geothermal zone. The distillation can be aided by forming steam from the geothermal heat as a thermal carrier.


46
Burke F Brush, Raphael Katzen: Hydrous alcohol distillation method and apparatus. Raphael Katzen Associates International, Merriam Marshall & Bicknell, December 22, 1981: US04306942 (123 worldwide citation)

An improved distillation method and apparatus are provided for recovering hydrous ethanol from fermentation or synthetic feedstocks. Substantial energy savings are realized by utilizing a pair of stripper-rectifier towers in which overhead vapors from one tower operating at a higher pressure supply ...


47
Kimberly Ann Horan, Carl David Murphy, Russell Mark Stephens, R Jay Warner, Kenneth Allen Windhorst: Process improvement for continuous ethyl acetate production. Celanese International Corporation, M Susan Spiering, July 27, 2004: US06768021 (123 worldwide citation)

Disclosed herein is an improved process for producing ethyl acetate comprising contacting acetic acid and ethanol in a reaction zone in the presence of an acid catalyst, distilling formed vapors and condensing to form an organic phase rich in ethyl acetate and an aqueous phase rich in water, separat ...


48
Stephen William Colley, Christopher Richard Fawcett, Colin Rathmell, Michael William Marshall Tuck: Process for the preparation of ethyl acetate. Davy Process Technology, Senniger Powers, October 26, 2004: US06809217 (120 worldwide citation)

Ethanol is dehydrogenated in the presence of hydrogen over a dehydrogenation catalyst, for example, a copper on silica catalyst. The liquefiable products present in the resulting intermediate reaction product mixture are selectively hydrogenated over a suitable catalyst, such as 5% ruthenium on carb ...


49
Masatoshi Yanagawa, Kazunori Watanabe, Fumio Nakahara: Method of producing carboxylic acid and alcohol. Kuraray, Oblon Spivak McClelland Maier & Neustadt P C, October 8, 2002: US06462231 (118 worldwide citation)

A method of producing carboxylic acid and alcohol, that includes: supplying a liquid to a first distillation tower, said liquid including a carboxylic acid ester, and said first distillation tower being operated in a total reflux condition, to obtain a side stream; supplying said side stream to a hy ...


50
Gerald C Tustin, Leslie S Depew, Nick A Collins: Method for producing acetaldehyde from acetic acid. Eastman Chemical Company, Harry J Gwinell, Matthew W Smith, September 19, 2000: US06121498 (117 worldwide citation)

A method of producing acetaldehyde hydrogenates acetic acid in the presence of an iron oxide catalyst containing between 2.5 and 90 wt % Pd, more preferably 10 and 80 wt % Pd and most preferably 20 and 60 wt % Pd. The catalyst has a specific surface area of less than 150 m.sup.2 /g. Hydrogen and ace ...



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