Bresler Sidney A: Desalination process. Bresler and Associates, February 1, 1972: US3639231 (40 worldwide citation)

Brackish water is desalinated by contacting it with one or more ion exchange resins followed by reverse osmosis. Brine rejected in reverse osmosis treatment can be used to regenerate a used ion exchange resin.

Wilmot H McCutchen: Rotary vacuum distillation and desalination apparatus. July 9, 1996: US05534118 (39 worldwide citation)

A controlled bubble of cavitation is formed within the distilland by opposed centrifugal and centripetal forces in the plane of an afferent mesial passage. Thus a distilland surface forms around the axis of rotation, and saturated vapor is continuously stripped from this distilland surface by the wo ...

McGinnis Philip Roswell, O Brien Gerald Joseph: Permeation separation element. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company, September 12, 1972: US3690465 (39 worldwide citation)

An improved element for the selective permeation separation of components of fluid mixtures comprises (1) thin layers of substantially parallel hollow filaments separated by (2) thin foraminous materials which restrict movement and prevent nesting of the hollow filaments during use of the element, a ...

Robert A Uhlinger: Means for desalination of water through reverse osmosis. Sand and Sea, Duane C Bowen, July 27, 1982: US04341629 (39 worldwide citation)

Water from a source is fed to a reverse osmosis unit having a membrane which divides the stream into a first permeate product and a first concentrate. The first permeate product is stored in a tank until a selected quantity is collected and then the source is disconnected from the pump which next de ...

Raymond A Tondreau, Donald T Bray: Water storage control for reverse osmosis system. Desalination Systems, Clement H Allen, February 26, 1980: US04190537 (39 worldwide citation)

A reverse osmosis system employs a tank for storing permeate under a pressure which is a portion of the pressure of feed water introduced into a pressure resistant container housing a semipermeable membrane cartridge. Control means such as an automatic valve, preferably of the double diaphragm type, ...

Hisao Hachisuka, Kenichi Ikeda: Composite reverse osmosis membrane having a separation layer with polyvinyl alcohol coating and method of reverse osmotic treatment of water using the same. Nitto Denko Corporation, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld L, January 23, 2001: US06177011 (37 worldwide citation)

A reverse osmosis composite membrane that has a high salt rejection, a high water permeability, and a high fouling tolerance, and permits practical desalination at a relatively low pressure is provided by coating the surface of a reverse osmosis membrane of aromatic polyamide with polyvinyl alcohol ...

Michel S M Lefebvre: Method of performing osmetic distillation. Limitinstant, Hale and Dorr, November 1, 1988: US04781837 (36 worldwide citation)

A hydrophobic semi-permeable membrane process (e.g., using hydrophobic microporous hollow fibers) for the concentration of a dilute solution of low osmotic pressure by osmotic distillation (also known as membrane distillation or membrane evaporation), which is a separation process using as its drivi ...

Enis Ben M, Lieberman Paul: Thermal energy storage system using compressed air energy and/or chilled water from desalination processes. Enis Ben M, Lieberman Paul, SHIMAZAKI John J, May 2, 2008: WO/2008/051427 (36 worldwide citation)

The invention relates to a universal system for producing cost effective energy particularly for cooling purposes. In one embodiment, wind turbines are used to generate electricity and compressed air energy, wherein the compressed air energy is used to co-generate electricity and chilled air. The ch ...

Richard M Goodman: Process for magnesium scale control using mixtures of polycationic and polyanionic polymers. American Cyanamid Company, William J VAN Loo, August 28, 1979: US04166041 (35 worldwide citation)

Magnesium hydroxide scale formation in evaporative desalination units is inhibited by adding to the saline water being processed a mixture of certain polycationic polymers and polyanionic polymers derived from an ethylenically unsaturated dibasic acid or an ethylenically unsaturated sulfonic acid.

Douglas C Hicks, Charles M Pleass: Wave-powered desalination of seawater. University of Delaware, December 20, 1983: US04421461 (35 worldwide citation)

This invention provides efficient and cost effective water wave-powered piston pumps. Utility of such pumps is demonstrated in the reverse osmosis desalination of seawater.

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