51
Bresler Sidney A: Desalination process. Bresler and Associates, February 1, 1972: US3639231 (40 worldwide citation)

Brackish water is desalinated by contacting it with one or more ion exchange resins followed by reverse osmosis. Brine rejected in reverse osmosis treatment can be used to regenerate a used ion exchange resin.


52
Wilmot H McCutchen: Rotary vacuum distillation and desalination apparatus. July 9, 1996: US05534118 (39 worldwide citation)

A controlled bubble of cavitation is formed within the distilland by opposed centrifugal and centripetal forces in the plane of an afferent mesial passage. Thus a distilland surface forms around the axis of rotation, and saturated vapor is continuously stripped from this distilland surface by the wo ...


53
McGinnis Philip Roswell, O Brien Gerald Joseph: Permeation separation element. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company, September 12, 1972: US3690465 (39 worldwide citation)

An improved element for the selective permeation separation of components of fluid mixtures comprises (1) thin layers of substantially parallel hollow filaments separated by (2) thin foraminous materials which restrict movement and prevent nesting of the hollow filaments during use of the element, a ...


54
Robert A Uhlinger: Means for desalination of water through reverse osmosis. Sand and Sea, Duane C Bowen, July 27, 1982: US04341629 (39 worldwide citation)

Water from a source is fed to a reverse osmosis unit having a membrane which divides the stream into a first permeate product and a first concentrate. The first permeate product is stored in a tank until a selected quantity is collected and then the source is disconnected from the pump which next de ...


55
Raymond A Tondreau, Donald T Bray: Water storage control for reverse osmosis system. Desalination Systems, Clement H Allen, February 26, 1980: US04190537 (39 worldwide citation)

A reverse osmosis system employs a tank for storing permeate under a pressure which is a portion of the pressure of feed water introduced into a pressure resistant container housing a semipermeable membrane cartridge. Control means such as an automatic valve, preferably of the double diaphragm type, ...


56
Masahiko Hirose, Hiroki Ito, Kazuo Tanaka: Osmosis membrane. Nitto Denko, Merchant & Gould P C, November 23, 1999: US05989426 (37 worldwide citation)

A composite reverse osmosis membrane has a polyamide type skin layer whose specific surface area ranges from 3 to 1000. The composite reverse osmosis membrane of this invention is superior in the salt rejection property and water permeability. The composite reverse osmosis membrane comprises a negat ...


57
Hisao Hachisuka, Kenichi Ikeda: Composite reverse osmosis membrane having a separation layer with polyvinyl alcohol coating and method of reverse osmotic treatment of water using the same. Nitto Denko Corporation, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld L, January 23, 2001: US06177011 (37 worldwide citation)

A reverse osmosis composite membrane that has a high salt rejection, a high water permeability, and a high fouling tolerance, and permits practical desalination at a relatively low pressure is provided by coating the surface of a reverse osmosis membrane of aromatic polyamide with polyvinyl alcohol ...


58
Douglas C Hicks, Charles M Pleass: Wave-powered desalination of seawater. University of Delaware, December 20, 1983: US04421461 (37 worldwide citation)

This invention provides efficient and cost effective water wave-powered piston pumps. Utility of such pumps is demonstrated in the reverse osmosis desalination of seawater.


59
Thomas A Davis: Water desalination process and apparatus. The University of South Carolina, Dority & Manning P A, December 2, 2008: US07459088 (36 worldwide citation)

A process and system for purifying water is disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, the process may be used to remove a divalent salt, such as calcium sulfate, from a water source in order to prevent the divalent salt from precipitating during the process. The water source, for instance, may be f ...


60
Michel S M Lefebvre: Method of performing osmetic distillation. Limitinstant, Hale and Dorr, November 1, 1988: US04781837 (36 worldwide citation)

A hydrophobic semi-permeable membrane process (e.g., using hydrophobic microporous hollow fibers) for the concentration of a dilute solution of low osmotic pressure by osmotic distillation (also known as membrane distillation or membrane evaporation), which is a separation process using as its drivi ...



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