41
Joseph E Toomey: Electro-synthesis of alcohols and carboxylic acids from corresponding metal salts. Reilly, Woodard Emhardt Naughton Moriarty & McNett, March 1, 1994: US05290404 (41 worldwide citation)

A preferred electrochemical process for producing an alcohol or carboxylic acid from a corresponding metal salt while also recovering metal cation residues is described. The preferred process does not require a three-compartment desalination cell but rather can be performed in a standard two-compart ...


42
Robbins Adam: Semipermeable membrane cartridge and method of making.. Desalination Systems, March 3, 1993: EP0529921-A1 (41 worldwide citation)

Cartridges for use in ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis separation devices are formed by injection molding a generally tubular, smooth, seamless shell about a spirally-wrapped semipermeable membrane assembly. These cartridges can be used within traditional separation devices having pressure vessels ...


43
Walter Patapoff, Jim Lung Wong: Miniaturized handheld desalination field unit. November 11, 1997: US05685980 (40 worldwide citation)

A water purification unit including a water inlet having a filter adapted to remove undissolved contaminants from a raw water source. The water inlet is coupled to a water reservoir including a semi-permeable membrane adapted to remove dissolved contaminants from raw water source. The filter and the ...


44
Theodore A Kuepper: Zero waste effluent desalination system. Marvin E Jacobs, May 28, 1996: US05520816 (40 worldwide citation)

The present invention is directed to a water desalination system that can be used in a home or commercial entity which uses a reverse osmosis or nanofilter membrane element in a unique flow configuration which promotes self cleaning of a membrane element to prevent a buildup of salts and minerals on ...


45
Bresler Sidney A: Desalination process. Bresler and Associates, February 1, 1972: US3639231 (40 worldwide citation)

Brackish water is desalinated by contacting it with one or more ion exchange resins followed by reverse osmosis. Brine rejected in reverse osmosis treatment can be used to regenerate a used ion exchange resin.


46
Alvin Kobashikawa, Yu Si Fok: Wave energy conversion device for desalination, ETC. Leighton K Chong, April 4, 2006: US07023104 (39 worldwide citation)

An impulse-type “wave motor” employs a seabed-mounted or supported structure mounting a wave energy absorbing panel on a hinged lever arm for reciprocation motion to obtain optimal absorption of wave energy from wave motion in the sea. For deepwater wavelengths of L, the panel is optimally positione ...


47
Robert A Uhlinger: Means for desalination of water through reverse osmosis. Sand and Sea, Duane C Bowen, July 27, 1982: US04341629 (39 worldwide citation)

Water from a source is fed to a reverse osmosis unit having a membrane which divides the stream into a first permeate product and a first concentrate. The first permeate product is stored in a tank until a selected quantity is collected and then the source is disconnected from the pump which next de ...


48
Raymond A Tondreau, Donald T Bray: Water storage control for reverse osmosis system. Desalination Systems, Clement H Allen, February 26, 1980: US04190537 (39 worldwide citation)

A reverse osmosis system employs a tank for storing permeate under a pressure which is a portion of the pressure of feed water introduced into a pressure resistant container housing a semipermeable membrane cartridge. Control means such as an automatic valve, preferably of the double diaphragm type, ...


49
McGinnis Philip Roswell, O Brien Gerald Joseph: Permeation separation element. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company, September 12, 1972: US3690465 (38 worldwide citation)

An improved element for the selective permeation separation of components of fluid mixtures comprises (1) thin layers of substantially parallel hollow filaments separated by (2) thin foraminous materials which restrict movement and prevent nesting of the hollow filaments during use of the element, a ...


50
Donald T Bray, David H Hopkins: Spiral wound membrane. Desalination Systems, Fitch Even Tabin & Flannery, June 27, 1989: US04842736 (38 worldwide citation)

A spiral wound membrane cartridge for use in separating a first component from a feed fluid mixture of the first component and the second component. The cartridge includes a permeate collection tube and at least one permeate carrier leaf extending outwardly from the tube. The cartridge further inclu ...



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