21
Philippe Rychen, Samuel Alonso, Hans P Alt, Dominique Gensbittel: Apparatus for the continuous electrochemical desalination of aqueous solutions. Christ, Wenderoth Lind & Ponack, December 27, 1994: US05376253 (58 worldwide citation)

An apparatus for the continuous electrochemical desalination of aqueous solutions includes a wound module having a central electrode, around which are wound an anion exchanger membrane and a cation exchanger membrane, and an outer counterelectrode. Each membrane is sealed at an inner edge thereof an ...


22
Constantz Brent, Farsad Kasra, Fernandez Miguel: Desalination methods and systems that include carbonate compound precipitation. Calera Corporation, Constantz Brent, Farsad Kasra, Fernandez Miguel, FIELD Bret, January 8, 2009: WO/2009/006295 (58 worldwide citation)

Desalination methods that include carbonate compound precipitation are provided. In certain embodiments, feed water is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions prior to desalination. In certain embodiments, desalination waste brine is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation con ...


23
Gary Edmund Wnek, Scott G Ehrenberg: Water- and ion-conducting membranes and uses thereof. Dais Analytic Corporation, Mary Louise Gioeni Esq, Helsin Rothenberg Farley & Mesiti P C, July 2, 2002: US06413298 (57 worldwide citation)

Water- and ion-conducting membranes composed of sulfonated statistical arylvinyl polymers, the arylvinyl polymer comprising at least one arylvinyl monomer and at least one olefin monomer and wherein aromatic moieties derived from the arylvinyl monomer are at least partially sulfonated, are used as p ...


24
James F Klausner, Renwei Mei: Diffusion driven desalination apparatus and process. University of Florida, Akerman Senterfitt, July 19, 2005: US06919000 (54 worldwide citation)

A diffusion driven desalination apparatus and related method includes structure for receiving a heated water stream and creating at least one region having a thin film of water and structure for forcing a low humidity air stream over the thin film of water, wherein water from the thin film of water ...


25
Bowie G Keefer: Rotary shaft driven reverse osmosis method and apparatus. September 8, 1981: US04288326 (54 worldwide citation)

Reverse osmosis, particularly for water desalination, uses semipermeable membranes which selectively permeate purified water from a feed solution pressurized by a reciprocating feed pump driven by rotating crankshaft. Pump action is assisted by depressurizing concentrate fluid within the pump cylind ...


26
Robert A Uhlinger: Desalination method and apparatus utilizing nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Fitch Even Tabin & Flannery, February 20, 2001: US06190556 (54 worldwide citation)

Apparatus and methods for producing potable water from an aqueous feed such as seawater utilizing a pressure vessel designed for operation in the range of about 250 psig to about 350 psig having reverse osmosis (RO) separation elements disposed upstream of at least one nanofiltrate separation elemen ...


27
Ahmed A ElDifrawi, Christopher F Blazek, Bernard D Yudow: Thermal gradient humidification-dehumidification desalination system. Institute of Gas Technology, Allegretti Newitt Witcoff & McAndrews, December 14, 1982: US04363703 (53 worldwide citation)

A solar energy desalination process utilizing solar radiation directly for the evaporation of salt water is described. Ambient air takes on water vapor as the air passes through an evaporative medium. It is then directed between a saline water-covered, solar absorbing surface and a solar collecting ...


28
Brent R Constantz, Kasra Farsad, Miguel Fernandez: Desalination methods and systems that include carbonate compound precipitation. Calera Corporation, Bozicevic Field & Francis, June 29, 2010: US07744761 (52 worldwide citation)

Desalination methods that include carbonate compound precipitation are provided. In certain embodiments, feed water is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation conditions prior to desalination. In certain embodiments, desalination waste brine is subjected to carbonate compound precipitation con ...


29
Ata M Hassan: Process for desalination of saline water, especially water, having increased product yield and quality. Saline Water Conversion Corporation, Brown Martin Haller & McClain, January 21, 2003: US06508936 (51 worldwide citation)

A desalination process is disclosed which combining two or more substantially different water treatment processes in a unique manner to desalinate saline water, especially sea water, to produce a high yield of high quality fresh water, including potable water, at an energy consumption equivalent to ...


30
Tadahiro Uemura, Hideo Fujimaki, Toshihiro Ikeda: Process of producing composite semipermeable membrane. Toray, Austin R Miller, September 24, 1991: US05051178 (51 worldwide citation)

Alkyldiamine, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or 1,3-dihydroxybenzene is added as a copolymerization component to a polyfunctional aromatic amine component in the amount of 1-20% by weight with respect to the polyfunctional aromatic amine in producing a composite semipermeable membrane by laminating on a mi ...