A01 - Agriculture; forestry; animal husbandry; hunting; trapping; fishing
A01B - Soil working in agriculture or forestry; parts, details, or accessories of agricultural machines ...
A01C - Planting; sowing; fertilising
A01D - Harvesting; mowing
A01F - Threshing; baling of straw, hay or the like; stationary apparatus or hand tools for forming or ...
A01G - Horticulture; cultivation of vegetables, flowers, rice, fruit, vines, hops, or seaweed; forestry; ...
A01H - New plants or processes for obtaining them; plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques
A01J - Manufacture of dairy products
A01K - Animal husbandry; care of birds, fishes, insects; fishing; rearing or breeding animals, not ...
A01L - Shoeing of animals
A01M - Catching, trapping or scaring of animals; apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or ...
A01N - Preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; biocides, e.g. as ...
A01P - Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical ...
Foodstuffs; tobacco
A21 - Baking; equipment for making or processing doughs; doughs for baking
A21C - Machines or equipment for making or processing doughs; handling baked articles made from dough
A21D - Treatment, e.g. preservation, of flour or dough for baking, e.g. by addition of materials; baking; ...
A22 - Butchering; meat treatment; processing poultry or fish
A22C - Processing meat, poultry, or fish
A23 - Foods or foodstuffs; their treatment, not covered by other classes
A23B - Preserving, e.g. by canning, meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables, edible seeds; chemical ripening ...
A23C - Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; milk or cheese substitutes; making thereof
A23D - Edible oils or fats, e.g. margarines, shortenings, cooking oils
A23F - Coffee; tea; their substitutes; manufacture, preparation, or infusion thereof
A23G - Cocoa; cocoa products, e.g. chocolate; substitutes for cocoa or cocoa products; confectionery; ...
A23J - Protein compositions for foodstuffs; working-up proteins for foodstuffs; phosphatide compositions ...
A23K - Fodder
A23L - ; their preparation or treatment, e.g. cooking, modification of nutritive qualities, physical ...
A23N - Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit, vegetables, or flower bulbs in bulk, not ...
A23P - Shaping or working of foodstuffs, not fully covered by a single other subclass
A24 - Tobacco; cigars; cigarettes; smokers requisites
A24C - Machines for making cigars or cigarettes
A24D - Cigars; cigarettes; tobacco smoke filters; mouthpieces for cigars or cigarettes; manufacture of ...
A24F - Smokers requisites; match boxes
Personal or domestic articles
A41 - Wearing apparel
A41C - Corsets; brassières
A41D - Outerwear; protective garments; accessories
A41F - Garment fastenings; suspenders
A41G - Artificial flowers; wigs; masks; feathers
A41H - Appliances or methods for making clothes, e.g. for dress-making, for tailoring, not otherwise ...
A42 - Headwear
A42B - Hats; head coverings
A42C - Manufacturing or trimming hats or other head coverings
A43 - Footwear
A43B - Characteristic features of footwear; parts of footwear
A43C - Fastenings or attachments for footwear; laces in general
A43D - Machines, tools, equipment or methods for manufacturing or repairing footwear
A44 - Haberdashery; jewellery
A44B - Buttons, pins, buckles, slide fasteners, or the like
A44C - Jewellery; bracelets; other personal adornments; coins
A45 - Hand or travelling articles
A45C - Purses; luggage; hand carried bags
A45D - Hairdressing or shaving equipment; manicuring or other cosmetic treatment
A45F - Travelling or camp equipment; sacks or packs carried on the body
A46 - Brushware
A46D - Manufacture of brushes
A47 - Furniture; domestic articles or appliances; coffee mills; spice mills; suction cleaners in general
A47B - Tables; desks; office furniture; cabinets; drawers; general details of furniture
A47C - Chairs; sofas; beds
A47D - Furniture specially adapted for children
A47F - Special furniture, fittings, or accessories for shops, storehouses, bars, restaurants, or the ...
A47G - Household or table equipment
A47H - Furnishings for windows or doors
A47J - Kitchen equipment; coffee mills; spice mills; apparatus for making beverages
A47K - Sanitary equipment not otherwise provided for; toilet accessories
A47L - Domestic washing or cleaning; suction cleaners in general
Health; life-saving; amusement
A61 - Medical or veterinary science; hygiene
A61B - Diagnosis; surgery; identification
A61C - Dentistry; apparatus or methods for oral or dental hygiene
A61D - Veterinary instruments, implements, tools, or methods
A61F - Filters implantable into blood vessels; prostheses; devices providing patency to, or preventing ...
A61G - Transport, personal conveyances, or accommodation specially adapted for patients or disabled ...
A61H - Physical therapy apparatus, e.g. devices for locating or stimulating reflex points in the body; ...
A61J - Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes; devices or methods specially ...
A61K - Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes
A61L - Methods or apparatus for sterilising materials or objects in general; disinfection, sterilisation, ...
A61M - Devices for introducing media into, or onto, the body; devices for transducing body media or for ...
A61N - Electrotherapy; magnetotherapy; radiation therapy; ultrasound therapy
A61P - Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations
A61Q - Use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
A62 - Life-saving; fire-fighting
A62B - Devices, apparatus or methods for life-saving
A62C - Fire-fighting
A62D - Chemical means for extinguishing fires; processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, ...
A63 - Sports; games; amusements
A63B - Apparatus for physical training, gymnastics, swimming, climbing, or fencing; ball games; training ...
A63C - Skates; skis; roller skates; design or layout of courts, rinks or the like
A63D - Bowling-alleys; bowling games; boccia; bowls; bagatelle; billiards
A63F - Card, board, or roulette games; indoor games using small moving playing bodies; games not ...
A63G - Merry-go-rounds; swings; rocking-horses; chutes; switchbacks; similar devices for public amusement
A63H - Toys, e.g. tops, dolls, hoops, building blocks
A63J - Devices for theatres, circuses, or the like; conjuring appliances or the like
A63K - Racing; riding sports; equipment or accessories therefor
Separating; mixing
B01 - Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general
B01D - Separation
B01F - Mixing, e.g. dissolving, emulsifying, dispersing
B01J - Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysis, colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus
B01L - Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus for general use
B02 - Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating; preparatory treatment of grain for milling
B02B - Preparing grain for milling; refining granular fruit to commercial products by working the surface
B02C - Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating in general; milling grain
B03 - Separation of solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs; magnetic or ...
B03B - Separating solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs
B03C - Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids; separation ...
B03D - Flotation; differential sedimentation
B04 - Centrifugal apparatus or machines for carrying-out physical or chemical processes
B04C - Apparatus using free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones
B05 - Spraying or atomising in general; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B05B - Spraying apparatus; atomising apparatus; nozzles
B05C - Apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B05D - Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B06 - Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
B06B - Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
B07 - Separating solids from solids; sorting
B07B - Separating solids from solids by sieving, screening, or sifting or by using gas currents; other ...
B07C - Postal sorting; sorting individual articles, or bulk material fit to be sorted piece-meal, e.g. by ...
B08 - Cleaning
B08B - Cleaning in general; prevention of fouling in general
B09 - Disposal of solid waste; reclamation of contaminated soil
B09C - Reclamation of contaminated soil
B21 - Mechanical metal-working without essentially removing material; punching metal
B21B - Rolling of metal
B21C - Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products ...
B21D - Working or processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing ...
B21F - Working or processing of wire
B21G - Making needles, pins, or nails
B21H - Making particular metal objects by rolling, e.g. screws, wheels, rings, barrels, balls
B21J - Forging; hammering; pressing; riveting; forge furnaces
B21K - Making forged or pressed products, e.g. horse-shoes, rivets, bolts, wheels
B21L - Making chains
B22 - Casting; powder metallurgy
B22C - Foundry moulding
B22D - Casting of metals; casting of other substances by the same processes or devices
B22F - Working metallic powder; manufacture of articles from metallic powder; making metallic powder
B23 - Machine tools; metal-working not otherwise provided for
B23B - Turning; boring
B23C - Milling
B23D - Planing; slotting; shearing; broaching; sawing; filing; scraping; like operations for working ...
B23F - Making gears or toothed racks
B23G - Thread cutting; working of screws, bolt heads, or nuts, in conjunction therewith
B23H - Working of metal by the action of a high concentration of electric current on a workpiece using an ...
B23K - Soldering or unsoldering; welding; cladding or plating by soldering or welding; cutting by ...
B23P - Other working of metal; combined operations; universal machine tools
B23Q - Details, components, or accessories for machine tools, e.g. arrangements for copying or ...
B24 - Grinding; polishing
B24B - Machines, devices, or processes for grinding or polishing; dressing or conditioning of abrading ...
B24C - Abrasive or related blasting with particulate material
B24D - Tools for grinding, buffing, or sharpening
B25 - Hand tools; portable power-driven tools; handles for hand implements; workshop equipment; ...
B25B - Tools or bench devices not otherwise provided for, for fastening, connecting, disengaging, or ...
B25C - Hand-held nailing or stapling tools; manually-operated portable stapling tools
B25D - Percussive tools
B25F - Combination or multi-purpose tools not otherwise provided for; details or components of portable ...
B25G - Handles for hand implements
B25H - Workshop equipment, e.g. for marking-out work; storage means for workshops
B25J - Manipulators; chambers provided with manipulation devices
B26 - Hand cutting tools; cutting; severing
B26B - Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for
B26D - Cutting; details common to machines for severing, e.g. by cutting, perforating, punching, stamping- ...
B26F - Perforating; punching; cutting-out; stamping-out; severing by means other than cutting
B27 - Working or preserving wood or similar material; nailing or stapling machines in general
B27C - Planing, drilling, milling, turning, or universal machines
B27D - Working veneer or plywood
B27F - Dovetailed work; tenons; slotting machines; nailing or stapling machines
B27G - Accessory machines or apparatus; tools; safety devices, e.g. for saws
B27H - Bending; cooperage; wheel-making
B27J - Mechanical working of cane, cork, or similar materials
B27K - Processes, apparatus or selection of substances for impregnating, staining, dyeing, bleaching of ...
B27L - Removing bark or vestiges of branches; splitting wood; manufacture of veneer, wooden sticks, wood ...
B27M - ; manufacture of specific wooden articles
B27N - Manufacture by dry processes of articles, with or without organic binding agents, made from ...
B28 - Working cement, clay, or stone
B28B - Shaping clay or other ceramic compositions, slag or mixtures containing cementitious material, e. ...
B28C - Preparing clay; producing mixtures containing clay or cementitious material, e.g. plaster
B28D - Working stone or stone-like materials
B29 - Working of plastics; working of substances in a plastic state in general
B29B - Preparation or pretreatment of the material to be shaped; making granules or preforms; recovery of ...
B29C - Shaping or joining of plastics; shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general; after- ...
B29D - Producing particular articles from plastics or from substances in a plastic state
B30 - Presses
B30B - Presses in general; presses not otherwise provided for
B31 - Making paper articles; working paper
B31B - Making boxes, cartons, envelopes, or bags
B31C - Making wound articles, e.g. wound tubes
B31D - Making other paper articles
B31F - Mechanical working or deformation of paper or cardboard
B32 - Layered products
B32B - Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or ...
B41 - Printing; lining machines; typewriters; stamps
B41C - Processes for the manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces
B41D - Apparatus for the mechanical reproduction of printing surfaces for stereotype printing; shaping ...
B41F - Printing machines or presses
B41G - Apparatus for bronze printing, line printing, or for bordering or edging sheets or like articles; ...
B41J - Typewriters; selective printing mechanisms, i.e. mechanisms printing otherwise than from a forme; ...
B41K - Stamps; stamping or numbering apparatus or devices
B41L - Apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating, or printing for office or other commercial ...
B41M - Printing, duplicating, marking, or copying processes; colour printing
B41N - Printing plates or foils; materials for surfaces used in printing machines for printing, inking, ...
B42 - Bookbinding; albums; files; special printed matter
B42C - Bookbinding
B42D - Books; book covers; loose leaves; printed matter of special format or style not otherwise provided ...
B42F - Sheets temporarily attached together; filing appliances; file cards; indexing
B43 - Writing or drawing implements; bureau accessories
B43K - Implements for writing or drawing
B43L - Articles for writing or drawing upon; accessories for writing or drawing
B43M - Bureau accessories not otherwise provided for
B44 - Decorative arts
B44C - Producing decorative effects; mosaics; tarsia work; paperhanging
B44D - Painting or artistic drawing, not otherwise provided for; preserving paintings; surface treatment ...
B44F - Special designs or pictures
B60 - Vehicles in general
B60B - Vehicle wheels; castors; axles; increasing wheel adhesion
B60C - Vehicle tyres; tyre inflation; tyre changing; connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies in ...
B60D - Vehicle connections
B60F - Vehicles for use both on rail and on road; amphibious or like vehicles; convertible vehicles
B60G - Vehicle suspension arrangements
B60H - Arrangements or adaptations of heating, cooling, ventilating, or other air-treating devices ...
B60J - Windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors, or similar devices for vehicles; removable external ...
B60K - Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units or of transmissions in vehicles; arrangement or ...
B60L - Electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles; magnetic suspension or ...
B60M - Power supply lines, or devices along rails, for electrically-propelled vehicles
B60N - Vehicle passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for
B60P - Vehicles adapted for load transportation or to transport, to carry, or to comprise special loads ...
B60Q - Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits ...
B60R - Vehicles, vehicle fittings, or vehicle parts, not otherwise provided for
B60S - Servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring of vehicles, not otherwise ...
B60T - Vehicle brake control systems or parts thereof; brake control systems or parts thereof, in ...
B60V - Air-cushion vehicles
B60W - Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function; control systems ...
B61 - Railways
B61B - Railway systems; equipment therefor not otherwise provided for
B61C - Locomotives; motor railcars
B61D - Body details or kinds of railway vehicles
B61F - Rail vehicle suspensions, e.g. underframes, bogies, arrangements of wheel axles; rail vehicles for ...
B61G - Couplings specially adapted for railway vehicles; draught or buffing appliances specially adapted ...
B61H - Brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles; arrangements or dis-positions of ...
B61J - Shifting or shunting of rail vehicles
B61K - Other auxiliary equipment for railways
B61L - Guiding railway traffic; ensuring the safety of railway traffic
B62 - Land vehicles for travelling otherwise than on rails
B62B - Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts or perambulators; sledges
B62C - Vehicles drawn by animals
B62D - Motor vehicles; trailers
B62H - Cycle stands; supports or holders for parking or storing cycles; appliances preventing or ...
B62J - Cycle saddles or seats; accessories peculiar to cycles and not otherwise provided for, e.g. ...
B62K - Cycles; cycle frames; cycle steering devices; rider-operated terminal controls specially adapted ...
B62L - Brakes specially adapted for cycles
B62M - Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles or sledges; powered propulsion of sledges or cycles; ...
B63 - Ships or other waterborne vessels; related equipment
B63B - Ships or other waterborne vessels; equipment for shipping
B63C - Launching, hauling-out, or dry-docking of vessels; life-saving in water; equipment for dwelling or ...
B63G - Offensive or defensive arrangements on vessels; mine-laying; mine-sweeping; submarines; aircraft ...
B63H - Marine propulsion or steering
B63J - Auxiliaries on vessels
B64 - Aircraft; aviation; cosmonautics
B64C - Aeroplanes; helicopters
B64D - Equipment for fitting in or to aircraft; flying suits; parachutes; arrangements or mounting of ...
B64F - Ground or aircraft-carrier-deck installations
B64G - Cosmonautics; vehicles or equipment therefor
B65 - Conveying; packing; storing; handling thin or filamentary material
B65B - Machines, apparatus or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials; unpacking
B65C - Labelling or tagging machines, apparatus, or processes
B65D - Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, ...
B65F - Gathering or removal of domestic or like refuse
B65G - Transport or storage devices, e.g. conveyers for loading or tipping; shop conveyer systems; ...
B65H - Handling thin or filamentary material, e.g. sheets, webs, cables
B66 - Hoisting; lifting; hauling
B66B - Elevators; escalators or moving walkways
B66C - Cranes; load-engaging elements or devices for cranes, capstans, winches, or tackles
B66D - Capstans; winches; tackles, e.g. pulley blocks; hoists
B66F - Hoisting, lifting, hauling, or pushing, not otherwise provided for, e.g. devices which apply a ...
B67 - Opening or closing bottles, jars or similar containers; liquid handling
B67C - Filling with liquids or semiliquids, or emptying, of bottles, jars, cans, casks, barrels, or ...
B67D - Dispensing, delivering, or transferring liquids, not otherwise provided for
B68 - Saddlery; upholstery
B68C - Saddles; stirrups
B68F - Making articles from leather, canvas, or the like
B68G - Methods, equipment, or machines for use in upholstering; upholstery not otherwise provided for
Micro-structural technology; nano-technology
B81 - Micro-structural technology
B81C - Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural ...
B82 - Nano-technology
B82B - Nano-structures; manufacture or treatment thereof
C01 - Inorganic chemistry
C01B - Non-metallic elements; compounds thereof
C01C - Ammonia; cyanogen; compounds thereof
C01D - Compounds of alkali metals, i.e. lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, or francium
C01F - Compounds of the metals beryllium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium, ...
c01g -
C02 - Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge
C02F - Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge
C03 - Glass; mineral or slag wool
C03B - Manufacture or shaping of glass, or of mineral or slag wool; supplementary processes in the ...
C03C - Chemical composition of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels; surface treatment of glass; surface ...
C04 - Cements; concrete; artificial stone; ceramics; refractories
C04B - Lime; magnesia; slag; cements; compositions thereof, e.g. mortars, concrete or like building ...
C05 - Fertilisers; manufacture thereof
C05C - Nitrogenous fertilisers
C05D - ; fertilisers producing carbon dioxide
C05F - , e.g. fertilisers from waste or refuse
C05G - ; mixtures of one or more fertilisers with materials not having a specific fertilising activity, e. ...
C06 - Explosives; matches
C06C - Detonating or priming devices; fuses; chemical lighters; pyrophoric compositions
C06D - Means for generating smoke or mist; gas-attack compositions; generation of gas for blasting or ...
C06F - Matches; manufacture of matches
C07 - Organic chemistry
C07C - Acyclic or carbocyclic compounds
C07D - Heterocyclic compounds
C07F - Acyclic, carbocyclic, or heterocyclic compounds containing elements other than carbon, hydrogen, ...
C07G - Compounds of unknown constitution
C07H - Sugars; derivatives thereof; nucleosides; nucleotides; nucleic acids
C07J - Steroids
C07K - Peptides
C08 - Organic macromolecular compounds; their preparation or chemical working-up; compositions based ...
C08C - Treatment or chemical modification of rubbers
C08F - Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
C08G - Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon ...
C08H - Derivatives of natural macromolecular compounds
C08J - Working-up; general processes of compounding;
C08K - Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
C08L - Compositions of macromolecular compounds
C09 - Dyes; paints; polishes; natural resins; adhesives; compositions not otherwise provided for; ...
C09B - Organic dyes or closely-related compounds for producing dyes; mordants; lakes
C09C - Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or ...
C09D - Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes, lacquers; filling pastes; chemical paint or ink ...
C09F - Natural resins; french polish; drying-oils; driers (siccatives); turpentine
C09G - Polishing compositions other than french polish; ski waxes
C09H - Preparation of glue or gelatine
C09J - Adhesives; adhesive processes in general (non-mechanical part); adhesive processes not provided ...
C09K - Materials for applications not otherwise provided for; applications of materials not otherwise ...
C10 - Petroleum, gas or coke industries; technical gases containing carbon monoxide; fuels; lubricants; ...
C10B - Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials for production of gas, coke, tar, or similar ...
C10C - Working-up tar, pitch, asphalt, bitumen; pyroligneous acid
C10F - Drying or working-up of peat
C10G - Cracking hydrocarbon oils; production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, e.g. by destructive ...
C10H - Production of acetylene by wet methods
C10J - Production of producer gas, water-gas, synthesis gas from solid carbonaceous material, or mixtures ...
C10K - Purifying or modifying the chemical composition of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
C10L - Fuels not otherwise provided for; natural gas; ; liquefied petroleum gas; use of additives to ...
C10M - Lubricating compositions; use of chemical substances either alone or as lubricating ingredients in ...
C11 - Animal or vegetable oils, fats, fatty substances or waxes; fatty acids therefrom; detergents; ...
C11B - Producing, e.g. by pressing raw materials or by extraction from waste materials, refining or ...
C11C - Fatty acids from fats, oils or waxes; candles; fats, oils or fatty acids by chemical modification ...
C11D - Detergent compositions; use of single substances as detergents; soap or soap-making; resin soaps; ...
C12 - Biochemistry; beer; spirits; wine; vinegar; microbiology; enzymology; mutation or genetic ...
C12F - Recovery of by-products of fermented solutions; denaturing of, or denatured, alcohol
C12G - Wine; other alcoholic beverages; preparation thereof
C12H - Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, ageing of alcoholic ...
C12J - Vinegar; its preparation
C12L - Pitching or depitching machines; cellar tools
C12M - Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology
C12N - Micro-organisms or enzymes; compositions thereof; propagating, preserving, or maintaining micro- ...
C12P - Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or ...
C12Q - Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; compositions or test papers ...
C12S - Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms to liberate, separate or purify a pre-existing compound ...
C13 - Sugar industry
C13D - Production or purification of sugar juices
C13F - Preparation or processing of raw sugar, sugar, or syrup
C13G - Evaporation apparatus; boiling pans
C13H - Cutting machines for sugar; combined cutting, sorting and packing machines for sugar
C13J - Extraction of sugar from molasses
C13K - Glucose; invert sugar; lactose; maltose; synthesis of sugars by hydrolysis of di- or polysaccharides
C14 - Skins; hides; pelts; leather
C14C - Chemical treatment of hides, skins or leather, e.g. tanning, impregnating, finishing; apparatus ...
C21 - Metallurgy of iron
C21B - Manufacture of iron or steel
C21C - Processing of pig-iron, e.g. refining, manufacture of wrought-iron or steel; treatment in molten ...
C21D - Modifying the physical structure of ferrous metals; general devices for heat treatment of ferrous ...
C22 - Metallurgy; ferrous or non-ferrous alloys; treatment of alloys or non-ferrous metals
C22B - Production or refining of metals; pretreatment of raw materials
C22C - Alloys
C22F - Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or non-ferrous alloys
C23 - Coating metallic material; coating material with metallic material; chemical surface treatment; ...
C23C - Coating metallic material; coating material with metallic material; surface treatment of metallic ...
C23D - Enamelling of, or applying a vitreous layer to, metals
C23F - Non-mechanical removal of metallic material from surfaces; inhibiting corrosion of metallic ...
C23G - Cleaning or de-greasing of metallic material by chemical methods other than electrolysis
C25 - Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes; apparatus therefor
C25B - Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes for the production of compounds or non- metals; ...
C25C - Processes for the electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals; apparatus therefor
C25D - Processes for the electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings; electroforming; joining ...
C25F - Processes for the electrolytic removal of materials from objects; apparatus therefor
C30 - Crystal growth
C30B - Single-crystal growth; unidirectional solidification of eutectic material or unidirectional ...
Combinatorial technology
C40 - Combinatorial technology
C40B - Combinatorial chemistry; libraries
Textiles or flexible materials not otherwise provided for
D01 - Natural or artificial threads or fibres; spinning
D01C - Chemical treatment of natural filamentary or fibrous material to obtain filaments or fibres for ...
D01D - Mechanical methods or apparatus in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, ...
D01F - Chemical features in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles, or ...
D01G - Preliminary treatment of fibres, e.g. for spinning
D01H - Spinning or twisting
D02 - Yarns; mechanical finishing of yarns or ropes; warping or beaming
D02G - Crimping or curling fibres, filaments, yarns, or threads; yarns or threads
D02H - Warping, beaming, or leasing
D02J - Finishing or dressing of filaments, yarns, threads, cords, ropes, or the like
D03 - Weaving
D03D - Woven fabrics; methods of weaving; looms
D03J - Auxiliary weaving apparatus; weavers tools; shuttles
D04 - Braiding; lace-making; knitting; trimmings; non-woven fabrics
D04B - Knitting
D04C - Braiding or manufacture of lace, including bobbin-net or carbonised lace; braiding machines; ...
D04D - Trimmings; ribbons, tapes, or bands, not otherwise provided for
D04G - Making nets by knotting of filamentary material; making knotted carpets or tapestries; knotting ...
D04H - Making textile fabrics, e.g. from fibres or filamentary material; fabrics made by such processes ...
D05 - Sewing; embroidering; tufting
D05B - Sewing
D05C - Embroidering; tufting
D06 - Treatment of textiles or the like; laundering; flexible materials not otherwise provided for
D06C - Finishing, dressing, tentering, or stretching textile fabrics
D06F - Laundering, drying, ironing, pressing or folding textile articles
D06G - Mechanical or pressure cleaning of carpets, rugs, sacks, hides, or other skin or textile articles ...
D06H - Marking, inspecting, seaming, or severing textile materials
D06J - Pleating, kilting, or goffering textile fabrics or wearing apparel
D06L - Bleaching, e.g. optical bleaching, dry-cleaning, or washing fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, ...
D06M - , of fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers, or fibrous goods made from such materials
D06N - Wall, floor, or like covering materials, e.g. linoleum, oilcloth, artificial leather, roofing ...
D06P - Dyeing or printing textiles; dyeing leather, furs, or solid macromolecular substances in any form
D06Q - Decorating textiles
D07 - Ropes; cables other than electric
D07B - Ropes or cables in general
D21 - Paper-making; production of cellulose
D21C - Production of cellulose by removing non-cellulose substances from cellulose- containing materials; ...
D21D - Treatment of the materials before passing to the paper-making machine
D21F - Paper-making machines; methods of producing paper thereon
D21G - Calenders; accessories for paper-making machines
D21H - Pulp compositions; ; impregnating or coating of paper; ; paper not otherwise provided for
D21J - Fibreboard; manufacture of articles from cellulosic fibrous suspensions or from papier-mâché
E01 - Construction of roads, railways, or bridges
E01B - Permanent way; permanent-way tools; machines for making railways of all kinds
E01C - Construction of, or surfaces for, roads, sports grounds, or the like; machines or auxiliary tools ...
E01D - Bridges
E01F - Additional work, such as equipping roads or the construction of platforms, helicopter landing ...
E01H - Street cleaning; cleaning of permanent ways; cleaning beaches; cleaning land; dispersing fog in ...
E02 - Hydraulic engineering; foundations; soil-shifting
E02B - Hydraulic engineering
E02C - Ship-lifting devices or mechanisms
E02D - Foundations; excavations; embankments; underground or underwater structures
E02F - Dredging; soil-shifting
E03 - Water supply; sewerage
E03C - Domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water; sinks
E03D - Water-closets or urinals with flushing devices; flushing valves therefor
E03F - Sewers; cesspools
E04 - Building
E04B - General building constructions; walls, e.g. partitions; roofs; floors; ceilings; insulation or ...
E04C - Structural elements; building materials
E04D - Roof coverings; sky-lights; gutters; roof-working tools
E04F - Finishing work on buildings, e.g. stairs, floors
E04G - Scaffolding; forms; shuttering; building implements or other building aids, or their use; handling ...
E04H - Buildings or like structures for particular purposes; swimming or splash baths or pools; masts; ...
E05 - Locks; keys; window or door fittings; safes
E05B - Locks; accessories therefor; handcuffs
E05C - Bolts or fastening devices for wings, specially for doors or windows
E05D - Hinges or other suspension devices for doors, windows, or wings
E05F - Devices for moving wings into open or closed position; checks for wings; wing fittings not ...
E05G - Safes or strong-rooms for valuables; bank protection devices; safety transaction partitions
E06 - Doors, windows, shutters, or roller blinds, in general; ladders
E06B - Fixed or movable closures for openings in buildings, vehicles, fences, or like enclosures, in ...
E06C - Ladders
Earth or rock drilling; mining
E21 - Earth or rock drilling; mining
E21B - Earth or rock drilling; obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of ...
E21C - Mining or quarrying
E21D - Shafts; tunnels; galleries; large underground chambers
E21F - Safety devices, transport, filling-up, rescue, ventilation, or drainage in or of mines or tunnels
Engines or pumps
F01 - Machines or engines in general; engine plants in general; steam engines
F01C - Rotary-piston or oscillating-piston machines or engines
F01D - Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines
F01K - Steam engine plants; steam accumulators; engine plants not otherwise provided for; engines using ...
F01L - Cyclically operating valves for machines or engines
F01M - Lubricating of machines or engines in general; lubricating internal-combustion engines; crankcase ...
F01N - Gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines in general; gas-flow silencers or ...
F01P - Cooling of machines or engines in general; cooling of internal-combustion engines
F02 - Combustion engines; hot-gas or combustion-product engine plants
F02B - Internal-combustion piston engines; combustion engines in general
F02C - Gas-turbine plants; air intakes for jet-propulsion plants; controlling fuel supply in air- ...
F02D - Controlling combustion engines
F02F - Cylinders, pistons, or casings for combustion engines; arrangements of sealings in combustion ...
F02G - Hot-gas or combustion-product positive-displacement engine plants; use of waste heat of combustion ...
F02K - Jet-propulsion plants
F02M - Supplying combustion engines in general with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof
F02N - Starting of combustion engines; starting aids for such engines, not otherwise provided for
F02P - Ignition, other than compression ignition, for internal-combustion engines; testing of ignition ...
F03 - Machines or engines for liquids; wind, spring, or weight motors; producing mechanical power or a ...
F03C - Positive-displacement engines driven by liquids
F03D - Wind motors
F03G - Spring, weight, inertia, or like motors; mechanical-power-producing devices or mechanisms, not ...
F03H - Producing a reactive propulsive thrust, not otherwise provided for
F04 - Positive-displacement machines for liquids; pumps for liquids or elastic fluids
F04B - Positive-displacement machines for liquids; pumps
F04C - Rotary-piston, or oscillating-piston, positive-displacement machines for liquids; rotary-piston, ...
F04D - Non-positive-displacement pumps
F04F - Pumping of fluid by direct contact of another fluid or by using inertia of fluid to be pumped; ...
Engineering in general
F15 - Fluid-pressure actuators; hydraulics or pneumatics in general
F15C - Fluid-circuit elements predominantly used for computing or control purposes
F15D - Fluid dynamics, i.e. methods or means for influencing the flow of gases or liquids
F16 - Engineering elements or units; general measures for producing and maintaining effective ...
F16B - Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together, e.g. nails, ...
F16C - Shafts; flexible shafts; elements of crankshaft mechanisms; rotary bodies other than gearing ...
F16D - Couplings for transmitting rotation; clutches; brakes
F16F - Springs; shock-absorbers; means for damping vibration
F16G - Belts, cables, or ropes, predominantly used for driving purposes; chains; fittings predominantly ...
F16H - Gearing
F16J - Pistons; cylinders; pressure vessels in general; sealings
F16K - Valves; taps; cocks; actuating-floats; devices for venting or aerating
F16L - Pipes; joints or fittings for pipes; supports for pipes, cables or protective tubing; means for ...
F16M - Frames, casings, or beds, of engines or other machines or apparatus, not specific to an engine, ...
F16N - Lubricating
F16P - Safety devices in general
F16S - Constructional elements in general; structures built-up from such elements, in general
F16T - Steam traps or like apparatus for draining-off liquids from enclosures predominantly containing ...
F17 - Storing or distributing gases or liquids
F17C - Vessels for containing or storing compressed, liquefied, or solidified gases; fixed-capacity gas- ...
F17D - Pipe-line systems; pipe-lines
Lighting; heating
F21 - Lighting
F21K - Light sources not otherwise provided for
F21L - Lighting devices or systems thereof, being portable or specially adapted for transportation
F21S - Non-portable lighting devices or systems thereof
F21V - Functional features or details of lighting devices or systems thereof; structural combinations of ...
F22 - Steam generation
F22D - Preheating, or accumulating preheated, feed-water; feed-water supply; controlling water level; ...
F22G - Superheating of steam
F23 - Combustion apparatus; combustion processes
F23B - Methods or apparatus for combustion using only solid fuel
F23C - Methods or apparatus for combustion using fluent fuel
F23D - Burners
F23G - Cremation furnaces; consuming waste by combustion
F23H - Grates; cleaning or raking grates
F23J - Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues; flues
F23K - Feeding fuel to combustion apparatus
F23L - Air supply; draught-inducing; supplying non-combustible liquid or gas
F23M - Constructional details of combustion chambers, not otherwise provided for
F23N - Regulating or controlling combustion
F23Q - Ignition; extinguishing devices
F23R - Generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity, e.g. gas-turbine combustion ...
F24 - Heating; ranges; ventilating
F24C - Other domestic stoves or ranges; details of domestic stoves or ranges, of general application
F24D - Domestic- or space-heating systems, e.g. central heating systems; domestic hot-water supply ...
F24F - Air-conditioning; air-humidification; ventilation; use of air currents for screening
F24H - Fluid heaters, e.g. water or air heaters, having heat-generating means, in general
F24J - Production or use of heat not otherwise provided for
F25 - Refrigeration or cooling; combined heating and refrigeration systems; heat pump systems; ...
F25B - Refrigeration machines, plants, or systems; combined heating and refrigeration systems; heat pump ...
F25C - Production, working, storing or distribution of ice
F25D - Refrigerators; cold rooms; ice-boxes; cooling or freezing apparatus not covered by any other ...
F25J - Liquefaction, solidification, or separation of gases or gaseous mixtures by pressure and cold ...
F26 - Drying
F26B - Drying solid materials or objects by removing liquid therefrom
F27 - Furnaces; kilns; ovens; retorts
F27B - Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts in general; open sintering or like apparatus
F27D - Details or accessories of furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts, in so far as they are of kinds ...
F28 - Heat exchange in general
F28C - Heat-exchange apparatus, not provided for in another subclass, in which the heat-exchange media ...
F28D - Heat-exchange apparatus, not provided for in another subclass, in which the heat-exchange media do ...
F28F - Details of heat-exchange or heat-transfer apparatus, of general application
F28G - Cleaning of internal or external surfaces of heat-exchange or heat-transfer conduits, e.g. water ...
Weapons; blasting
F41 - Weapons
F41B - Weapons for projecting missiles without use of explosive or combustible propellant charge; weapons ...
F41C - Smallarms, e.g. pistols, rifles; accessories therefor
F41F - Apparatus for launching projectiles or missiles from barrels, e.g. cannons; launchers for rockets ...
F41G - Weapon sights; aiming
F41H - Armour; armoured turrets; armoured or armed vehicles; means of attack or defence, e.g. camouflage, ...
F41J - Targets; target ranges; bullet catchers
F42 - Ammunition; blasting
F42B - Explosive charges, e.g. for blasting; fireworks; ammunition
F42C - Ammunition fuzes; arming or safety means therefor
F42D - Blasting
G01 - Measuring; testing
G01B - Measuring length, thickness or similar linear dimensions; measuring angles; measuring areas; ...
G01C - Measuring distances, levels or bearings; surveying; navigation; gyroscopic instruments; ...
G01D - Measuring not specially adapted for a specific variable; arrangements for measuring two or more ...
G01F - Measuring volume, volume flow, mass flow, or liquid level; metering by volume
G01G - Weighing
G01H - Measurement of mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
G01J - Measurement of intensity, velocity, spectral content, polarisation, phase or pulse characteristics ...
G01K - Measuring temperature; measuring quantity of heat; thermally-sensitive elements not otherwise ...
G01L - Measuring force, stress, torque, work, mechanical power, mechanical efficiency, or fluid pressure
G01M - Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures; testing structures or apparatus not ...
G01N - Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties
G01P - Measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, deceleration, or shock; indicating presence, ...
G01R - Measuring electric variables; measuring magnetic variables
G01S - Radio direction-finding; radio navigation; determining distance or velocity by use of radio waves; ...
G01T - Measurement of nuclear or x-radiation
G01V - Geophysics; gravitational measurements; detecting masses or objects; tags
G01W - Meteorology
G02 - Optics
G02B - Optical elements, systems, or apparatus
G02C - Spectacles; sunglasses or goggles insofar as they have the same features as spectacles; contact ...
G02F - Devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical ...
G03 - Photography; cinematography; analogous techniques using waves other than optical waves; ...
G03B - Apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs or for projecting or viewing them; apparatus or ...
G03C - Photosensitive materials for photographic purposes; photographic processes, e.g. cine, x-ray, ...
G03D - Apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials; accessories therefor
G03F - Photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. for printing, for processing of ...
G03G - Electrography; electrophotography; magnetography
G03H - Holographic processes or apparatus
G04 - Horology
G04B - Mechanically-driven clocks or watches; mechanical parts of clocks or watches in general; time- ...
G04C - Electromechanical clocks or watches
G04D - Apparatus or tools specially designed for making or maintaining clocks or watches
G04F - Time-interval measuring
G04G - Electronic time-pieces
G05 - Controlling; regulating
G05B - Control or regulating systems in general; functional elements of such systems; monitoring or ...
G05D - Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables
G05F - Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables
G05G - Control devices or systems insofar as characterised by mechanical features only
G06 - Computing; calculating; counting
G06D - Digital fluid-pressure computing devices
G06E - Optical computing devices
G06F - Electric digital data processing
G06G - Analogue computers
G06J - Hybrid computing arrangements
G06K - Recognition of data; presentation of data; record carriers; handling record carriers
G06M - Counting mechanisms; counting of objects not otherwise provided for
G06N - Computer systems based on specific computational models
G06Q - Data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for administrative, commercial, financial, ...
G06T - Image data processing or generation, in general
G07 - Checking-devices
G07B - Ticket-issuing apparatus; fare-registering apparatus; franking apparatus
G07C - Time or attendance registers; registering or indicating the working of machines; generating random ...
G07D - Sorting, testing, changing, delivering, or otherwise handling coins; testing or changing paper ...
G07F - Coin-freed or like apparatus
G07G - Registering the receipt of cash, valuables, or tokens
G08 - Signalling
G08B - Signalling or calling systems; order telegraphs; alarm systems
G08C - Transmission systems for measured values, control or similar signals
G08G - Traffic control systems
G09 - Educating; cryptography; display; advertising; seals
G09B - Educational or demonstration appliances; appliances for teaching, or communicating with, the ...
G09C - Ciphering or deciphering apparatus for cryptographic or other purposes involving the need for ...
G09D - Railway or like time or fare tables; perpetual calendars
G09F - Displaying; advertising; signs; labels or name-plates; seals
G09G - Arrangements or circuits for control of indicating devices using static means to present variable ...
G10 - Musical instruments; acoustics
G10C - Pianos
G10D - Musical instruments not otherwise provided for
G10F - Automatic musical instruments
G10G - Aids for music
G10H - Electrophonic musical instruments
G10K - Sound-producing devices; acoustics not otherwise provided for
G10L - Speech analysis or synthesis; speech recognition
G11 - Information storage
G11B - Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer
G11C - Static stores
G12 - Instrument details
G12B - Details of instruments, or comparable details of other apparatus, not otherwise provided for
G21 - Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering
G21B - Fusion reactors
G21C - Nuclear reactors
G21D - Nuclear power plant
G21F - Protection against x-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation or particle bombardment; ...
G21G - Conversion of chemical elements; radioactive sources
G21H - Obtaining energy from radioactive sources; applications of radiation from radioactive sources; ...
G21J - Nuclear explosives; applications thereof
G21K - Techniques for handling particles or electromagnetic radiation not otherwise provided for; ...
H01 - Basic electric elements
H01B - Cables; conductors; insulators; selection of materials for their conductive, insulating, or ...
H01C - Resistors
H01F - Magnets; inductances; transformers; selection of materials for their magnetic properties
H01G - Capacitors; capacitors, rectifiers, detectors, switching devices, light-sensitive or temperature- ...
H01H - Electric switches; relays; selectors; emergency protective devices
H01J - Electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps
H01K - Electric incandescent lamps
H01L - Semiconductor devices; electric solid state devices not otherwise provided for
H01M - Processes or means, e.g. batteries, for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical ...
H01P - Waveguides; resonators, lines or other devices of the waveguide type
H01Q - Aerials
H01R - Electrically-conductive connections; structural associations of a plurality of mutually-insulated ...
H01S - Devices using stimulated emission
H01T - Spark gaps; overvoltage arresters using spark gaps; sparking plugs; corona devices; generating ...
H02 - Generation, conversion, or distribution of electric power
H02B - Boards, substations, or switching arrangements for the supply or distribution of electric power
H02G - Installation of electric cables or lines, or of combined optical and electric cables or lines
H02H - Emergency protective circuit arrangements
H02J - Circuit arrangements or systems for supplying or distributing electric power; systems for storing ...
H02K - Dynamo-electric machines
H02M - Apparatus for conversion between ac and ac, between ac and dc, or between dc and dc, and for use ...
H02N - Electric machines not otherwise provided for
H02P - Control or regulation of electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters; controlling ...
H03 - Basic electronic circuitry
H03B - Generation of oscillations, directly or by frequency-changing, by circuits employing active ...
H03C - Modulation
H03D - Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another
H03F - Amplifiers
H03G - Control of amplification
H03H - Impedance networks, e.g. resonant circuits; resonators
H03J - Tuning resonant circuits; selecting resonant circuits
H03K - Pulse technique
H03L - Automatic control, starting, synchronisation, or stabilisation of generators of electronic ...
H03M - Coding, decoding or code conversion, in general
H04 - Electric communication technique
H04B - Transmission
H04H - Broadcast communication
H04J - Multiplex communication
H04K - Secret communication; jamming of communication
H04L - Transmission of digital information, e.g. telegraphic communication
H04M - Telephonic communication
H04N - Pictorial communication, e.g. television
H04Q - Selecting
H04R - Loudspeakers, microphones, gramophone pick-ups or like acoustic electromechanical transducers; ...
H04S - Stereophonic systems
H04W - Wireless communication networks
H05 - Electric techniques not otherwise provided for
H05B - Electric heating; electric lighting not otherwise provided for
H05C - Electric circuits or apparatus specially designed for use in equipment for killing, stunning, ...
H05F - Static electricity; naturally-occurring electricity
H05G - X-ray technique
H05H - Plasma technique; production of accelerated electrically- charged particles or of neutrons; ...
H05K - Printed circuits; casings or constructional details of electric apparatus; manufacture of ...