Ching W Tang: Organic electroluminescent cell. Eastman Kodak Company, Dana M Schmidt, October 26, 1982: US04356429 (557 worldwide citation)

An organic electroluminescent cell is disclosed comprising a luminescent zone between two electrodes, wherein a hole-injecting zone comprising a porphyrinic compound is disposed between the luminescent zone and the anode electrode.

Subhendu Guha, Stanford R Ovshinsky: P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same. Energy Conversion Devices, Marvin S Siskind, Richard M Goldman, October 4, 1988: US04775425 (252 worldwide citation)

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Ronald A Sinton: Bilevel contact solar cells. The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Gregory O Garmong, October 1, 1991: US05053083 (174 worldwide citation)

A high efficiency back side contact solar cell is fabricated using a self-aligning process that reduces the number of masks and alignments as compared with prior processes. The back surface of the cell is patterned by etching into an array of bilevel, interdigitated mesas and trenches, separated by ...

James B Foote, Steven A F Kaake, Peter V Meyers, James F Nolan: Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product. Solar Cells, Brooks & Kushman, July 16, 1996: US05536333 (158 worldwide citation)

A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and pref ...

Reid A Mickelsen, Wen S Chen: Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2. The Boeing Company, Hughes Barnard & Cassidy, June 15, 1982: US04335266 (157 worldwide citation)

An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active ...

Gary A Pollock, Kim W Mitchell, James H Ermer: Thin film solar cell and method of making. Atlantic Richfield Company, Nilsson Robbins Dalgarn Berliner Carson & Wurst, April 10, 1990: US04915745 (153 worldwide citation)

A structure for, and method of making, thin films of Group I-III-VI compound semiconductors such as copper indium diselenide for use in heterojunction photovoltaic devices fabricated on metal substrates. An interfacial film containing gallium is first deposited upon the substrate. Thereafter, copper ...

Yakov Safir: Bifacial solar cell. Finnegan Henderson Farabow Garrett & Dunner, September 9, 1997: US05665175 (144 worldwide citation)

A bifacial solar cell including a semiconductor substrate wafer, a first active area of a first conductivity type provided on at least a part of a first side of the wafer and a second active area of a second conductivity type provided on a second side of the wafter, the edge face of the wafter and t ...


Stephen R Forrest, Vladimir Bulovic, Peter Peumans: Organic photosensitive optoelectronic device with an exciton blocking layer. The Trustees of Princeton University, Kenyon & Kenyon, September 17, 2002: US06451415 (135 worldwide citation)

Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices (“OPODs”) which include an exciton blocking layer to enhance device efficiency. Single heterostructure, stacked and wave-guide type embodiments. Photodetector OPODs having multilayer structures and an exciton blocking layer. Guidelines for selection of e ...

Steven R Kurtz, Andrew A Allerman, John F Klem, Eric D Jones: InGaAsN/GaAs heterojunction for multi-junction solar cells. Sandia Corporation, John P Hohimer, June 26, 2001: US06252287 (135 worldwide citation)

An InGaAsN/GaAs semiconductor p-n heterojunction is disclosed for use in forming a 0.95-1.2 eV bandgap photodetector with application for use in high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells. The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction is formed by epitaxially growing on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) or germanium ...