1
Elmo A Blubaugh Jr, Alan R Brunsman: Glucose sensor. Implanted Biosystems, Thompson Hine & Flory, October 12, 1999: US05964993 (656 worldwide citation)

A sensor that is capable of accurately measuring glucose and other analytes in low oxygen environments is provided. The sensor employs an enzyme-containing membrane comprising a semi-interpenetrating polymer network which is infiltrated by an enzyme. The enzyme-containing membrane increases oxygen t ...


2
David J Litman, Zvi Harel, Edwin F Ullman: Macromolecular environment control in specific receptor assays. Syva Company, Bertram I Rowland, June 23, 1981: US04275149 (636 worldwide citation)

Method and compositions are provided for performing protein binding assays involving a homologous pair consisting of ligand and receptor for the ligand. The method employs a label conjugated to a member of said homologous pair and a uniformly dispersed discontinuous phase of discrete particles in a ...


3
Jeffrey A Hubbell, Chandrashekhar P Pathak, Amarpreet S Sawhney, Neil P Desai, Jennifer L Hill, Syed F A Hossainy: Gels for encapsulation of biological materials. Board of Regents The University of Texas System, Arnall Golden & Gregory, January 12, 1999: US05858746 (491 worldwide citation)

Water soluble macromers are modified by addition of free radical polymerizable groups, such as those containing a carbon-carbon double or triple bond, which can be polymerized under mild conditions to encapsulate tissues, cells, or biologically active materials. The polymeric materials are particula ...


4
Toshihiko Yoshioka, Mariko Kawaguri, Shiro Nankai: Preparation of biosensor having a layer containing an enzyme, electron acceptor and hydrophilic polymer on an electrode system. Matsushita Electric Industrial, Wenderoth Lind & Ponack, July 20, 1993: US05229282 (442 worldwide citation)

The present invention relates to a process of preparation of a biosensor comprising forming an electrode system mainly containing carbon on an insulating base plate, treating the surface of electrode system with an organic solvent, and then arranging a reaction layer on the electrode system to give ...


5
Paul F Weaver, Arthur J Frank: Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes. The United States of America represented by the Department of Energy, Kenneth Richardson, Hugh W Glenn, William R Moser, May 4, 1993: US05208154 (260 worldwide citation)

Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversib ...


6
Yasusi Niiyama, Kenshi Sugahara: Electrochemical sensor having three layer membrane containing immobilized enzymes. Hitachi, Antonelli Terry & Wands, January 3, 1989: US04795707 (260 worldwide citation)

An electrochemical sensor is formed having a working electrode for detecting hydrogen peroxide surrounded by a cylinder portion, and with an enzymecontaining membrane at its tip. The membrane has a porous layer permeable to hydrogen peroxide between a layer containing an immobilized enzyme capable o ...


7
Paul A D Orazio, David Sogin: Three-layered membrane for use in an electrochemical sensor system. Chiron Diagnostics Corporation, Arthur S Morgenstern, Gerry A Blodgett, Robert P Blackburn, June 30, 1998: US05773270 (224 worldwide citation)

A system for electrochemical measurement of glucose concentration in an undiluted test sample, e.g. blood is provided containing a sensor including a three-layered contiguous membrane. The membrane has a thickness of 50 to 130 microns, and is composed of a 1 to 10 micron thick first layer, a 10 to 3 ...


8
Jeffrey A Hubbell, Chandrashekhar P Pathak, Amarpreet S Sawhney, Neil P Desai, Syed F A Hossainy: Gels for encapsulation of biological materials. The Board of Regents the Univeristy of Texas System, Lyon & Lyon, June 25, 1996: US05529914 (221 worldwide citation)

This invention provides novel methods for the formation of biocompatible membranes around biological materials using photopolymerization of water soluble molecules. The membranes can be used as a covering to encapsulate biological materials or biomedical devices, as a "glue" to cause more than one b ...


9
Ebtisam S Wilkins: Immobilized enzymes for use in an electrochemical sensor. University of New Mexico, Robert Becker, December 19, 1995: US05476776 (213 worldwide citation)

A reusable, miniature, implantable electrochemical sensor, a method of making the same, and a powder therefor are provided. Enzyme material is immobilized on bulk particulate matter, and a reaction chamber of the sensor is then filled therewith. The sensor is implanted in an environment where it com ...


10
Jeffrey A Hubbell, Chandrashekhar P Pathak, Amarpreet S Sawhney, Neil P Desai, Jennifer L Hill West, Syed F A Hossainy: Gels for encapsulation of biological materials. Board of Regents The University of Texas System, Arnall Golden & Gregory, November 12, 1996: US05573934 (193 worldwide citation)

Water soluble macromers are modified by addition of free radical polymerizable groups, such as those containing a carbon-carbon double or triple bond, which can be polymerized under mild conditions to encapsulate tissues, cells, or biologically active materials. The polymeric materials are particula ...