1
Jacques Leclerc de Bussy: Method for producing torrefied wood, product obtained thereby, and application to the production of energy. Watson Cole Grindle & Watson, November 29, 1988: US04787917 (54 worldwide citation)

New product consisting of wood which is torrefied between 250.degree. and 280.degree. C. in a non oxidizing atmosphere, in the form of sticks of uniform length: 15 mm for example and having a diameter comprised between 5 and 20 mm, which are not disbarked. The preparation of the method comprised the ...


2
Rudolf W Gunnerman: Fuel pellet and process for making it by shaping under pressure an organic fibrous material. Stevens Davis Miller & Mosher, December 29, 1981: US04308033 (48 worldwide citation)

An organic fibrous material such as bagasse, tree bark, sawdust, straw, peat moss, tree twigs and the like is mixed with a waxy material which is compatible with natural waxy substances contained by the organic fibrous material. The mixture is shaped into a substantially symmetrical pellet having a ...


3
Peter H Benson, William S Wickersham: Solid fuel and process for combustion of the solid fuel. Speckman Pauley & Fejer, July 4, 1995: US05429645 (40 worldwide citation)

A solid fuel containing a recycled residue from anaerobic fermentation or anaerobic digestion of an organic material. The solid fuel can also contain a volatile solid fossil fuel. The residue is preferably derived from an anaerobic digestion process of municipal solid waste, raw sewage sludge, bioma ...


4
Kenneth E Daugherty, Barney J Venables, Oscar O Ohlsson: Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel. University of North Texas, Arch Development Corporation, Richards Medlock & Andrews, October 8, 1996: US05562743 (37 worldwide citation)

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a bind ...


5
Daniel Lonchamp, Vong N Hoai, Francois Pierre Navarre: Process for manufacturing solid fuels from heavy hydrocarbon oils and vegetable materials. Institut Francais du Petrole, Millen & White, October 22, 1985: US04548615 (34 worldwide citation)

A method for manufacturing a solid fuel composition by admixing vegetable organic material with an oil-in-water macro-emulsion and drying the resultant composition.


6
Jan Mats Eneroth, Sven A Nordfeldt: Method of refining solid fuel of organic vegetable material. Svenska Flaktfabriken, Dann Dorfman Herrell and Skillman, October 21, 1980: US04229183 (32 worldwide citation)

A method for refining organic material such as bark, wood shavings, wood chips, other wood waste and peat for use as a solid fuel or for gas generation in which the material after dewatering is disintegrated and dried by the flue gases passing from the heat exchange surfaces of the furnace in which ...


7
Rudolf W Gunnerman, William A Farone: Process for preparing and using sweet sorghum in a fuel product. Klarquist Sparkman Campbell Leigh & Whinston, September 23, 1986: US04613339 (30 worldwide citation)

A method for preparing and using a combustible fuel product using sweet sorghum is disclosed. A sorghum variety high in sugar, high in biomass, and low in nitrogen is first processed to remove a majority of sugars therefrom. The remaining ligno-cellulosic residue, commonly known as bagasse, is conve ...


8
James Lewis Lucas, Fred E Martin: Process for production of lignin fuel, ethyl alcohol, cellulose, silica/silicates, and cellulose derivatives from plant biomass. April 7, 1998: US05735916 (29 worldwide citation)

This invention relates to a series of treatments, both physical and chemical, to plant biomass resulting in the production of ethanol, lignin, and a high protein animal feed supplement. In plants having a high silica content, a fourth product is obtained, silica/caustic oxide (silicates solution, wa ...


9
John Rivers, Charles D Kramer, Robert L Cox: Suspension firing of hog fuel, other biomass or peat. Weyerhaeuser Company, August 6, 1985: US04532873 (28 worldwide citation)

A method is described for preparing hog fuel, other biomass, or peat for efficient burning and heat recovery in a water-wall boiler. The process requires drying the fuel to less that a 30% moisture content. The fuel is then pulverized to an upper particle size such that there are substantially no pa ...


10
Eugene Kyle Stephenson, Leonard J Starks: Wax compositions comprising alkenyl succinic anhydride-capped poly (oxyalkylenated) colorants. Terry T Moyer, William S Parks, February 8, 2000: US06022402 (25 worldwide citation)

This invention relates to wax formulations comprised of specific poly(oxyalkylenated) colorants having alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) terminal groups. Preferably the wax formulation is a crayon. Such polymeric ASA-capped colorants provide excellent coloring, decreased migratory properties, and imp ...