1
Peter Van Meurs, Eric P De Rouffignac, Harold J Vinegar, Michael F Lucid: Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil. Shell Oil Company, December 12, 1989: US04886118 (345 worldwide citation)

Shale oil is produced from a subterranean interval of oil shale, where the interval is initially substantially impermeable and contains a specified grade and thickness of oil shale. Said interval is conductively heated from borehole interiors which are kept hotter than about 600.degree. C. and are h ...


2
Davidson John Bruce: Torque limiting device. Coventry Gauge & Tool, December 31, 1970: GB1217159-A (293 worldwide citation)

1,217,159. Positive clutches; controlling clutches. COVENTRY GAUGE & TOOL CO. Ltd. 3 March, 1969 [5 Dec., 1967], No. 55279/67. Headings F2C and F2L. An overload release clutch comprises driving and driven rings 1 and 2 carrying dog teeth 21, 22 and drawn into engagement by a magnet or electromagnet ...


3
Recovering combustible gases from underground deposits of coal or bituminous shale. Iniex, November 3, 1976: GB1454324-A (281 worldwide citation)

1454324 Combustible gases INSTITUT NATIONAL DES INDUSTRIES EXTRACTIVES 11 Oct 1974 [14 Aug 1974] 44065/74 Heading C5E Combustible gases are recovered from an underground deposit of coal or bituminous shale with overlying rock by thermally gasifying the coal or shale in a lower part N 1 , Fig. 1, of ...


4
Rajen Puri, Luis E Arri, Bruce W Gash: Combination air-blown and oxygen-blown underground coal gasification process. Amoco Corporation, F E Hook, R R Cochran, T H Briggs, May 5, 1987: US04662443 (232 worldwide citation)

Use of an air-blown underground coal gasification plant to produce low-Btu gas thereby providing boiler fuel needed for an oxygen-blown underground coal gasification plant. The product from the oxygen-blown plant can be used for the production of synthetic natural gas or other uses. A preferred prod ...


5
John M Forgac, George R Hoekstra: Pulsed in situ retorting in an array of oil shale retorts. Standard Oil Company, Gulf Oil Corporation, Thomas W Tolpin, William T McClain, R C Medhurst, November 12, 1985: US04552214 (220 worldwide citation)

Greater product yield and quality and continuous upgrading of shale oil with hydrogen-rich, purge mode off gases is attained by pulsing in situ retorts at different phases and intervals. In the process, flow of feed gases to the flame fronts of underground retorts are sequentially stopped and purged ...


6
Process for the underground gasification of a deposit. Iniex, February 15, 1978: GB1501310-A (169 worldwide citation)

1501310 Underground gasification of coal INSTITUT NATIONAL DES INDUSTRIES EXTRACTIVES 21 July 1976 [31 July 1975] 30342/76 Heading C5E Coal or lignite in an underground deposit in the form of a plurality of layers situated at a depth of more than 500 metres is gasified by circulation of a gaseous cu ...


7
Douglas R Piotter: Pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials. Phillips Petroleum Company, Williams Phillips & Umphlett, June 5, 1990: US04931171 (114 worldwide citation)

A process for the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials at an elevated temperature or an elevated temperature and an elevated pressure in which a fuel is burned in the presence of a combustion supporting material, in an amount sufficient to supply at least the stoichiometric amount of oxygen for combu ...


8
William A Wootten: Apparatus for converting coal to hydrocarbons. Pollock Vande Sande & Amernick R L, January 11, 2000: US06013158 (102 worldwide citation)

An apparatus for forming liquid hydrocarbons from solid coal. The coal is pulverized to provide a particulate coal feed, which is then extruded to provide a hollow tube of compressed coal supported inside of a support tube. A clay feed is extruded to provide a hollow tube of compressed clay supporte ...


9
Louis H Jaquay, Albert C Mengon deceased: Heating process gas for indirect shale oil retorting through the combustion of residual carbon in oil depleted shale. Dravo Corporation, Parmelee Miller Welsh & Kratz, March 27, 1984: US04439307 (100 worldwide citation)

Hot oil depleted shale from an indirect oil shale retorting process is charged into the top of a vertical shaft furnace together with sufficient oxygen to combust the residual carbon in the shale. Recycle process gas is fed into the bottom of the furnace for direct heating by the spent shale. The he ...


10
Barry A Freel, Robert G Graham: Apparatus for a circulating bed transport fast pyrolysis reactor system. Ensyn Technologies, Brinks Hofer Gilson & Lione, October 5, 1999: US05961786 (95 worldwide citation)

This invention generally relates to a new method and apparatus for the fast pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials involving rapid mixing, high heat transfer rates, precisely controlled short uniform residence times and rapid primary product quench in an upflow, entrained-bed, transport reactor with he ...



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