1
Melvyn N Kronick, William A Little: Fluorescent immunoassay employing total reflection for activation. Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Townsend and Townsend, February 17, 1976: US03939350 (396 worldwide citation)

Receptors are employed to which one or more fluroescent molecules are bound. When the receptors are bound to the epitopic sites on the surface and light of predetermined wave length is directed toward the surface, the fluorescing molecules are activated and fluoresce.


2
William A Little: Micro miniature refrigerators. The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, LeBlanc Nolan Shur & Nies, July 12, 1983: US04392362 (111 worldwide citation)

A microminiature cryogenic device for cooling in the milliwatt range includes a miniature refrigerator in which micron-sized fluid passages are defined in one or more internal surfaces of a laminate of glass or similar low thermal conductivity members by means of lithographic, etching or particle bl ...


3
William A Little, Igor Sapozhnikov, Todd Thompson, George M Savage: Cryosurgical system and method. Femrx, Verne E Kreger Jr, October 23, 2001: US06306129 (57 worldwide citation)

A cryosurgical system comprises a compressor unit and a probe assembly. A secondary refrigerant stream from the compressor unit pre-cools a heat exchanger within the probe assembly in a standby mode of operation. After the heat exchange is pre-cooled, a primary refrigerant stream can be passed throu ...


4
William A Little: Refrigerators. The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, LeBlanc Nolan Shur & Nies, June 7, 1983: US04386505 (44 worldwide citation)

A multilayer miniature low temperature refrigerator wherein a cooling chamber for a device to be continuously cooled is connected to an input and an output by micron sized channels or like passages in respective different interfaces of a laminate of glass or like plates.


5
William A Little: Self-cleaning low-temperature refrigeration system. MMR Technologies, Lumen Intellectual Property Services, April 8, 1997: US05617739 (33 worldwide citation)

A method and device is disclosed for removing residual oil and other contaminants from the refrigerant stream flowing to low-temperature stages of a cryogenic refrigerator. A stream of vapor and liquid refrigerant coming from an air-cooled condenser is injected into a cyclone chamber [32] through th ...


6
William A Little: Method for efficient counter-current heat exchange using optimized mixtures. MMR Technologies, Lumen Intellectual Property Services, July 1, 1997: US05644502 (30 worldwide citation)

A method is disclosed for maximizing the thermodynamic efficiency and the heat transfer capacity of a counter-current heat exchanger through the use of an optimized multi-component working fluid. Given the operational temperatures and pressures of the heat exchanger, the disclosure teaches a method ...


7
William A Little: Fast cooldown miniature refrigerators. The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, LeBlanc Nolan Shur & Nies, December 25, 1984: US04489570 (22 worldwide citation)

A multilayer miniature low temperature rapid cooldown refrigerator in which a central cooling chamber for a device to be continuously cooled is connected to input and output refrigerant lines by micron sized channels formed in interfaces of glass or like plates, the channels including a counterflow ...


8
William A Little, Igor Sapozhnikov: Self-cleaning cryogenic refrigeration system. MMR Technologies, Lumen Intellectual Property Services, March 10, 1998: US05724832 (21 worldwide citation)

A method and device is disclosed for removing residual oil and other contaminants from the refrigerant stream flowing to low-temperature stages of a cryogenic refrigerator. A stream of vapor and liquid refrigerant is injected into a cyclone chamber �32! through the inlet tube �34!. While the liquid ...


9
William A Little, Sam Spektor: Device and method for removing water and carbon dioxide from a gas mixture using pressure swing adsorption. MMR Technologies, Lumen Patent Firm, November 18, 2008: US07452406 (12 worldwide citation)

A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) dryer for separating water and carbon dioxide from a gas stream includes two compound adsorbent columns [32, 42]. Each column comprises a primary adsorption material for adsorbing water and a secondary adsorbent that adsorbs carbon dioxide. The secondary adsorbent c ...


10
William A Little: Small-scale gas liquefier. MMR Technologies, Lumen Intellectual Property Services, January 23, 2007: US07165422 (10 worldwide citation)

A cryogenic gas is liquefied using a refrigeration system [101] thermally coupled at an evaporator [125] to a cold end of a gas supply system [103] within a dewar [116]. The refrigerator has a minimum temperature at an evaporator [125] above the boiling point of the gas at atmospheric pressure but b ...



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