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Eric Pierre de Rouffignac, Ilya Emil Berchenko, Thomas David Fowler, John Michael Karanikas, Kevin Albert Maher, Robert Charles Ryan, Gordon Thomas Shahin Jr, Harold J Vinegar, Scott Lee Wellington, Etuan Zhang: In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources. Shell Oil Company, October 4, 2005: US06951247 (233 worldwide citation)

An oil shale formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Heat may be provided to a portion of the formation from one or more heat sources having a horizontal orientation in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heat sources to a section of the formation. Hydrocarbons ...


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John Michael Ward, Eric Pierre de Rouffignac, Ajay Madhav Madgavkar, Kevin Albert Maher, Bruce Donald Palfreyman, Robert Charles Ryan, George Leo Stegemeier, Harold J Vinegar, Scott Lee Wellington: In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation. Shell Oil Company, February 28, 2006: US07004251 (229 worldwide citation)

An oil shale formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Heat may be provided to a portion of the formation from one or more heat sources. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heat sources to a selection of the formation. Hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be prod ...


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Eric Pierre de Rouffignac, Harold J Vinegar, Scott Lee Wellington, John Michael Karanikas, Ilya Emil Berchenko, George Leo Stegemeier, Etuan Zhang, Thomas David Fowler, Robert Charles Ryan: In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element. Shell Oil Company, August 29, 2006: US07096953 (225 worldwide citation)

A coal formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. A mixture of hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. Heat may be applied ...