Holger Moritz, Gabor Paal: Method of making a negative photoresist image. International Business Machines Corporation, David M Bunnell, August 1, 1978: US04104070 (68 worldwide citation)

The invention relates to a method of making a negative photoresist image on a substrate, where a normally positive working photoresist material containing 1-hydroxyethyl-2-alkyl-imidazoline is applied to a substrate, image-wise exposed with actinic radiation, heated, and blanket exposed to actinic r ...

Gabor Paal, Jurgen F Wustenhagen: Method of developing and stripping positive photoresist. International Business Machines Corporation, David M Bunnell, April 5, 1977: US04015986 (28 worldwide citation)

Baked novolak resin based positive photoresists are either developed after exposure or stripped, following the use of the pattern resist layer as an etch mask, in aqueous solutions of a combination of permanganate and phosphoric acid.

Janos Havas, Gabor Paal: Method of depositing thin films of small dimensions utilizing silicon nitride lift-off mask. International Business Machines Corporation, Sughrue Rothwell Mion Zinn and Macpeak, May 13, 1980: US04202914 (20 worldwide citation)

A method for depositing thin film patterns of very small and controllable dimensions in the fabrication of integrated circuits which avoids edge tearing of the films. A non-photosensitive organic polymeric first masking layer is deposited on the integrated circuit substrate. Upon this layer is depos ...

Gabor Paal, Klaus Schackert: Method of passivating and planarizing a metallization pattern. International Business Machines Corporation, Theodore E Galanthay, May 16, 1978: US04089766 (9 worldwide citation)

Disclosed is a process for passivating a first metallization pattern on a semiconductor substrate and providing a substantially planar quartz surface for subsequent metallization patterns in which a first polymer layer is applied over a first metallization layer and other portions of the substrate, ...

Gabor Paal: Method of reducing the defect density in a positive-working photoresist layer using a salt of imidazolinium. International Business Machines Corporation, David M Bunnell, March 6, 1979: US04142892 (5 worldwide citation)

The density of defects formed during the exposure of a positive resist layer, due to the loss of photoresist in circular areas is reduced by the addition of an antistatic agent. The resist layer includes a phenol-formaldehyde resin and an o-diazoquinone photoactive compound and a suitable antistatic ...

Gunther Arnold, Gabor Paal, Alfred Wilhelm, Kurt Halfar, Hans Peter Vollmer: Radiation sensitive recording material. AGFA Gevaert Aktiengesellschaft, Connolly and Hutz, March 9, 1976: US03942996 (4 worldwide citation)

A radiation sensitive recording material contains a layer of a layer-forming substance and incorporated therein an organic halogen compound capable of producing hydrogenhalide when struck by high energy radiation, and a chromogenic arylvinyl pyran or arylvinylthio pyran which changes its color by re ...

Werner Krafft, Gunther Arnold, Gabor Paal, Hans Peter Vollmer: Polymer binder. Agfa Gevaert, Connolly and Hutz, August 1, 1978: US04104067 (1 worldwide citation)

Copolymers of methylacrylate/alkyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate/alkyl methacrylate are used as a binder for UV-sensitive recording materials, preferably recording materials which contain substances which are capable of discoloration.