Pierre L Cote, Bradley M Smith, Ake A Deutschmann, Carlos F F Rodrigues, Steven K Pedersen: Frameless array of hollow fiber membranes and method of maintaining clean fiber surfaces while filtering a substrate to withdraw a permeate. Zenon Environmental, Alfred D Lobo, September 28, 1993: US05248424 (157 worldwide citation)

A frameless array unconfined in a modular shell, proves to be a surprisingly effective membrane device for withdrawing permeate from a substrate, the flux through the membranes reaching an essentially constant relatively high value because of the critical deployment of fibers of the array as a skein ...

Mahendran Mailvaganam, Luigi Fabbricino, Carlos F F Rodrigues, Allen R Donnelly: Hollow fiber semipermeable membrane of tubular braid. Zenon Environmental, Alfred D Lobo, December 5, 1995: US05472607 (54 worldwide citation)

A hollow fiber membrane ("fiber") comprises a tubular macroporous support coated on its outer surface with a thin tubular asymmetric semipermeable film of polymer. The film, by itself, is non-self-supporting. The support itself is so flexible (flaccid) that it does not have a circular cross-section ...

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