1
Gerald B Hoekstra, David R Christian: In situ retorting of oil shale. Standard Oil Company, Gulf Oil Corporation, Thomas W Tolpin, William T McClain, William H Magidson, October 12, 1982: US04353418 (254 worldwide citation)

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for the in situ retorting of oil shale and purification products comprising establishing an underground in situ retort containing a mass of rubblized matter comprising oil shale and establishing a flame front within the rubblized matter. Oxygen containing gas com ...


2
Lincoln F Elkins: Shale oil recovery. Standard Oil Company, John E Miller Jr, Herbert D Knudsen, Larry W Evans, May 5, 1981: US04265307 (250 worldwide citation)

In situ shale oil recovery from oil shale deposits using radio frequency energy as a heat generator is facilitated by rubblizing the shale oil deposits before application of radio frequency energy.


3
John D McCollum, Leonard M Quick: Process for recovering and upgrading hydrocarbons from oil shale and tar sands. Standard Oil Company, James R Henes, Arthur G Gilkes, William T McClain, April 6, 1976: US03948755 (240 worldwide citation)

A process for recovering and upgrading hydrocarbons from oil shale and tar sands by contacting the oil shale or tar sands with a dense-water-containing fluid at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree.F. to about 900.degree.F. in the absence of externally supplied hydrogen and in the pre ...


4
Frank H Hollingsworth, George R Jenkins, John W Kirkpatrick, Lawrence N Mower: Indirect thermal stimulation of production wells. Standard Oil Company, Fred E Hook, June 23, 1981: US04274487 (239 worldwide citation)

A well which is to produce from a heavy oil or tar sands reservoir is thermally stimulated from another well located on the order of 10 to 50 feet away. This adjacent thermal stimulation well can be considered expendable. This thermal stimulation is continued for a number of days, until the hot zone ...


5
Rajen Puri: Method of underground conversion of coal. Standard Oil Company, Scott H Brown, Robert R Cochran, August 27, 1985: US04537252 (235 worldwide citation)

A method of converting coal and other solid carbonaceous material to gaseous and liquid products by heating the coal in the presence of the gaseous effluent to a sufficient temperature for pyrolyzing the coal to produce liquid and gaseous products. Thereafter, further gasifying the coal to produce a ...


6
George R Hoekstra, John M Forgac: Transient response process for detecting in situ retorting conditions. Standard Oil Company, Thomas W Tolpin, William T McClain, William H Magidson, July 3, 1984: US04457374 (233 worldwide citation)

A process is provided for determining retorting conditions in an in situ oil shale retort. In the process, the thickness of the hot shale zone is determined by monitoring the off gases in response to changing the feed conditions, such as the temperature or flow rate, of the feed gas. The location an ...


7
John M Forgac, George R Hoekstra: Pulsed in situ retorting in an array of oil shale retorts. Standard Oil Company, Gulf Oil Corporation, Thomas W Tolpin, William T McClain, R C Medhurst, November 12, 1985: US04552214 (222 worldwide citation)

Greater product yield and quality and continuous upgrading of shale oil with hydrogen-rich, purge mode off gases is attained by pulsing in situ retorts at different phases and intervals. In the process, flow of feed gases to the flame fronts of underground retorts are sequentially stopped and purged ...


8
Lincoln F Elkins: Modified in situ retorting of oil shale. The Standard Oil Company, Salvatore P Pace, Herbert D Knudsen, Larry W Evans, August 30, 1983: US04401163 (218 worldwide citation)

Hot retorting gas for pyrolysis of kerogen in a bed of rubblized oil shale is supplied by a pressure pulsing technique.


9
Kenneth G Nolte: Fracturing fluid breaker system which is activated by fracture closure. The Standard Oil Company, Scott H Brown, Fred E Hook, March 26, 1985: US04506734 (190 worldwide citation)

Disclosed are compositions and related methods of use for reducing the viscosity of a fluid introduced into a subterranean formation. The compositions are introduced into the subterranean formation and are non-reactive to the fluid until activated by the closing of any fractures in the subterranean ...


10
Frederick A Pesa, Anne M Graham, Wayne R Kliewer: Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The Standard Oil Company, Joseph G Curatolo, Herbert D Knudsen, Larry W Evans, August 9, 1983: US04398039 (186 worldwide citation)

A process is provided for the vapor phase hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield their corresponding alcohols in the presence of steam and a catalyst comprising the mixed oxides of ruthenium, at least one of cobalt, nickel, and optionally one of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, rhodium, palladium, o ...