1
Graham George A, Luce Nunzio A, Zanoni Louis A: Electro-optic cell having a liquid isolated from its hermetic sealing means. Optel Corporation, Spivak Joel F, April 30, 1974: US3807833 (126 worldwide citation)

A liquid crystal cell comprises a transparent top support plate having a transparent conductive coating thereon, a bottom support plate smaller than the first support plate and having a reflective conductive coating on one surface thereof and a black coating on its opposite surface is centered with ...


2
Brian Astle: Direct current power converters employing digital techniques used in electronic timekeeping apparatus. Optel Corporation, Joel F Spivak, May 11, 1976: US03955353 (46 worldwide citation)

A converter utilizes a low voltage battery to develop a higher potential by the use of capacitors which are charged sequentially according to digital waveforms provided by counting type circuits and gates. The charge transfer circuits afford a low impedance charging path and a high impedance dischar ...


3
Nunzio A Luce: Electronic calculator watch structures. Optel Corporation, Joel F Spivak, May 11, 1976: US03955355 (45 worldwide citation)

There is disclosed an integral instrument providing timekeeping and display with calculator functions and display accomplished by means of a keyboard assembly mounted on the watch casing and adapted to be worn about a user's wrist. Included is time sharing circuitry to enable common display drivers ...


4
Goldmacher Joel E, Tayag Miguelita G: Liquid crystal device. Optel Corporation, Spivak Joel F, May 7, 1974: US3809456 (23 worldwide citation)

A liquid crystal display device comprises a liquid crystal composition sandwiched between electrodes, at least one electrode being transparent. The liquid crystal device includes an aligning agent to improve the contrast ratio of the display and doping agents to adjust the conductivity of the liquid ...


5
Schoen Nan Chen, Satyendra K Deb, Horst Witzke: Dye-titanium dioxide photogalvanic cell. Optel Corporation, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Morris Liss, March 21, 1978: US04080488 (23 worldwide citation)

A photogalvanic cell has a glass substrate through which irradiating light passes. A light transparent conductive thin film serves as an electrode, the film being deposited upon the glass substrate. Another layer is an electrolyte and includes an aqueous medium having TiO.sub.2 suspended therein, th ...


6
Satyendra Kumar Deb, Horst Witzke: Electrochromic cell with protective overcoat layer. Optel Corporation, Morris Liss, Israel Gopstein, October 17, 1978: US04120568 (21 worldwide citation)

An electrochromic device having an electrochromic layer and an electrolyte sandwiched between electrodes. A charge compensator ion permeable layer is interposed between the electrochromic layer and the electrolyte. The latter-mentioned interposing layer serves as a protective overcoat for the electr ...


7
Luce Nunzio A: Decoder and driver circuits particularly adapted for use with liquid crystal displays. Optel Corporation, Spivak Esq Joel F, June 25, 1974: US3820108 (18 worldwide citation)

A decoder-driver network for energizing a liquid crystal display used in a timepiece to cause the same to provide any one of a plurality of presentations according to any one of a number of coded formats. The decoder-driver circuit uses bidirectional devices arranged in series paths to minimize comp ...


8
Schnatterly Stephen Eugene: Electrochromic display having electro-catalyst. Optel Corporation, Spivak Joel F, October 8, 1974: US3840288 (17 worldwide citation)

An electrochromic device comprises a layered structure including a transparent conductive electrode, an electrochromic layer thereon, an ion permeable insulator on said electrochromic layer, an electrocatalytic layer on said insulator, and a sponge material on said electrocatalytic layer said sponge ...


9
Schoen nan Chen, Kenneth J Harrison: Reversible printing display. Optel Corporation, Morris Liss, Israel Gopstein, January 30, 1979: US04137524 (16 worldwide citation)

The present invention includes a multi-electrode structure including a counterelectrode, a display electrode in registry with the counterelectrode and finally an intermediately positioned apertured background electrode. Display material is contained between the counterelectrode and the background el ...


10
Witzke Horst, Schnatterly Stephen Eugene: Symmetrical electrochromic cell. Optel Corporation, Spivak Joel F, October 8, 1974: US3840287 (14 worldwide citation)

An electrochromic cell having an essentially symmetrical type of structure such as a cell comprising an electrochromic material, a color assisting agent, a second electrochromic material and a second electrode in a layer type structure wherein at least one of said electrochromic materials is in its ...