1
Michael J Heller, Eugene Tu: Active programmable electronic devices for molecular biological analysis and diagnostics. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, February 25, 1997: US05605662 (655 worldwide citation)

A self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic device is designed and fabricated to actively carry out and control multi-step and multiplex molecular biological reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include nucleic acid hybridization, antibody/antigen reaction, diagnostics, and biop ...


2
Michael J Heller, Eugene Tu, William F Butler: Molecular biological diagnostic systems including electrodes. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, May 27, 1997: US05632957 (511 worldwide citation)

A system for performing molecular biological diagnosis, analysis and multi-step and multiplex reactions utilizes a self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic system for actively carrying out controlled reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include most molecular biological procedu ...


3
Ronald G Sosnowski, William F Butler, Eugene Tu, Michael I Nerenberg, Michael J Heller, Carl F Edman: Methods and procedures for molecular biological analysis and diagnostics. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, April 18, 2000: US06051380 (252 worldwide citation)

A self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic device is designed and fabricated to actively carry out and control multi-step and multiplex molecular biological reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include nucleic acid hybridizations, antibody/antigen reactions, diagnostics, and bi ...


4
Gregory T A Kovacs: Multiplexed active biologic array. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, October 12, 1999: US05965452 (251 worldwide citation)

An improved biologic electrode array and methods for manufacturing and using the same. In one aspect, a matrix of electrodes each coupled to a respective sample-and-hold circuit is provided. The electrodes and sample-and-hold circuits are integral and form an array within a single semiconductor chip ...


5
Michael James Heller, James Patrick O Connell, Robert David Juncosa, Ronald George Sosnowski, Thomas Ratcliffe Jackson: Methods for hybridization analysis utilizing electrically controlled hybridization. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, December 15, 1998: US05849486 (229 worldwide citation)

A system for performing molecular biological diagnosis, analysis and multistep and multiplex reactions utilizes a selfaddressable, selfassembling microelectronic system for actively carrying out controlled reactions in microscopic formats. Preferably, a fluidic system flow a sample across an active ...


6
Michael J Heller: Hybridization of polynucleotides conjugated with chromophores and fluorophores to generate donor-to donor energy transfer system. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, October 15, 1996: US05565322 (176 worldwide citation)

The presence invention contemplates chromophore-containing polynucleotides having at least two donor chromophores operatively linked to the polynucleotide by linker arms, such that the chromophores are positioned by linkage along the length of the polynucleotide at a donor-donor transfer distance, a ...


7
Michael J Heller: Methods for electronic stringency control for molecular biological analysis and diagnostics. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, January 25, 2000: US06017696 (168 worldwide citation)

A self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic device is designed and fabricated to actively carry out and control multi-step and multiplex molecular biological reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include nucleic acid hybridizations, antibody/antigen reactions, diagnostics, and bi ...


8
Gregory T A Kovacs: Biologic electrode array with integrated optical detector. Nanogen, O Melveny & Myers, May 16, 2006: US07045097 (134 worldwide citation)

A biologic electrode array is formed on a semiconductor substrate. A matrix of electrode sites is disposed on the semiconductor substrate. A matrix of optical detectors is disposed beneath the electrode sites in the semiconductor substrate, wherein each electrode site is associated with a correspond ...


9
Michael J Heller, Eugene Tu: Methods for electronic synthesis of polymers. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, July 27, 1999: US05929208 (129 worldwide citation)

A self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic device is designed and fabricated to actively carry out and control multi-step and multiplex molecular biological reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include nucleic acid hybridization, antibody/antigen reaction, diagnostics, and biop ...


10
Michael J Heller: Hybridization of polynucleotides conjugated with chromophores and fluorophores to generate donor-to-donor energy transfer system. Nanogen, Lyon & Lyon, December 15, 1998: US05849489 (124 worldwide citation)

The present invention contemplates chromophore-containing polynucleotides having at least two donor chromophores operatively linked to the polynucleotide by linker arms, such that the chromophores are positioned by linkage along the length of the polynucleotide at a donor--donor transfer distance, a ...



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