1
Michael I Sherman, Carl L Elmore: Acid hydrolysis of biomass for alcohol production. Kamyr, Nixon & Vanderhye, September 16, 1986: US04612286 (69 worldwide citation)

A method of treating biomass having fermentable material is provided utilizing acid hydrolysis in a countercurrent diffusion treatment structure. By practicing the invention acid usage is minimized, pentose concentration in the hydrolysate solution is maximized, and ethanol, butanol, butanediol, and ...


2
Ronny Hoglund, Ulf Jansson: Apparatus for fluidizing, degassing and pumping a suspension of fibrous cellulose material. Kamyr, Cushman Darby & Cushman, May 11, 1993: US05209641 (64 worldwide citation)

An apparatus for fluidizing, degassing and pumping a suspension of fibrous cellulose material is described which comprises a housing, a fluidizing rotor and an impeller of radial type, said housing having a cylindrical portion for the rotor, a portion for the impeller which is radially enlarged in r ...


3
Carl L Elmore: Method of producing kraft pulp using an acid prehydrolysis and pre-extraction. Kamyr, Cushman Darby & Cushman, March 13, 1984: US04436586 (63 worldwide citation)

A method for produce both kraft pulp and alcohol from hardwood chips or the like. The chips are subjected to mild acid prehydrolysis following by mild caustic pre-extraction. The withdrawn hydrolysate has insufficient furfural to inhibit microorganism growth, and both the hexose and pentose sugars i ...


4
Johan C F C Richter: Method and apparatus for effecting even distribution and mixing of high consistency pulp and treatment fluid. Kamyr Aktiebolag, Cushman Darby & Cushman, June 6, 1978: US04093506 (45 worldwide citation)

Method and apparatus for the continuous distribution and mixing of high concentration pulp with at least one treatment fluid such as chlorine or chlorine dioxide. An enclosed housing has a cylindrical portion, a closed conical wall portion extending inwardly from one end of the cylindrical portion, ...


5
Hakan Dahllof, Rolf Ekholm, Ulf Jansson: Apparatus for mixing a suspension of cellulosic fibrous material and fluid. Kamyr Aktiebolag, Cushman Darby & Cushman, November 22, 1994: US05366288 (45 worldwide citation)

An apparatus for mixing pulp and fluid includes a housing with a center line an inlet and outlet for the pulp; an inlet for the supply of fluid and two walls are arranged in the housing and have opposite sides which between them define a gap-shaped surface through which the pulp will flow and has in ...


6
Michael I Sherman: Method of countercurrent acid hydrolysis of comminuted cellulosic fibrous material. Kamyr, Nixon & Vanderhye, May 26, 1987: US04668340 (41 worldwide citation)

A method and apparatus are provided for the treatment of comminuted cellulosic fibrous material to effect prehydrolysis, and then subsequently kraft digestion, thereof, to produce paper pulp. The material is steamed, entrained in liquid to form a suspension, and transferred by a high pressure feeder ...


7
Thomas R Delcourt: Rotor for increasing mixing efficiency in a medium consistency mixer. Kamyr, Nixon & Vanderhye, November 23, 1993: US05263774 (39 worldwide citation)

Medium consistency (e.g. about 5-18%) paper pulp is mixed with a treatment fluid by fluidizing them while subjecting them to a constantly changing shear field in radial and axial planes. This is accomplished by providing a mixer rotor having a constantly varying cross-section along a dimension of el ...


8
Todd S Grace, Mark D Barrett, Vic L Bilodeau, Gary L McCarty, Brian F Greenwood, J Robert Prough, Louis O Torregrossa: Acid pre-hydrolysis reactor system. Kamyr, Nixon & Vanderhye, August 16, 1994: US05338366 (39 worldwide citation)

Biomass, such as bagasse, is pre-hydrolyzed, to ultimately effect hydrolysis of hemicellulose to sugars. Biomass is mixed with a mineral acid solution to form a slurry having a consistency of about 8 to 12% so that the acid solution properly wets the biomass. Then the slurry is dewatered to about 35 ...


9
Carl L Elmore, Phillip Mitchell, Robert J Brison: Heap leaching with oxygen. Kamyr, Nixon & Vanderhye, January 26, 1988: US04721526 (38 worldwide citation)

A method and system for the percolation leaching of gold and silver ores applies a cyanide leaching liquid to a pile of gold and silver ore. Heap leaching, vat leaching, or the like may specifically be practiced. The cyanide leaching liquid is applied to the pile by spraying, flooding, or via a foam ...


10
Johan E Gullichsen, Esko Harkonen, Toivo Niskanen, Jaakko Kujala, Voitto Reponen: Controlling operation of a centrifugal pump. Kamyr, Cushman Darby & Cushman, March 6, 1984: US04435193 (34 worldwide citation)

The operation of a centrifugal pump which pumps a liquid or suspension (e.g. 8-12 percent consistency) containing gas is controlled to minimize pump power consumption, or to vary the pump flow rate. The suspension is rotated within the pump so that a gas bubble is created at a central part of the pu ...



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