WO/1996/027025 is referenced by 5 patents.
Methods and means are provided for the massively parallel characterization of complex molecules and of molecular recognition phenomena with parallelism and redundancy attained through single molecule examination methods. Applications include ultra-rapid genome sequencing, affinity characterization, pathogen characterization and detection means for clinical use and use in the development and construction of cybernetic immune systems. Novel methods for single molecule examination and manipulation are provided, including scanned beam light microscopic means and methods, and detection means availing of optoelectronic array devices. Various apparatus for rate control, including stepping control for various reactions are combined with molecular recognition, signal amplification and single molecule examination methods. Inclusion of internal control in samples, algorithm-based dynamically responsive manipulation controls, and sample redundancy, are availed to provide an arbitrarily high degree of accuracy in final data.