Embodiments of the present technology may include a method of processing a semiconductor substrate. The method may include providing the semiconductor substrate in a processing region. Additionally, the method may include flowing gas through a cavity defined by a powered electrode. The method may further include applying a negative voltage to the powered electrode. Also, the method may include striking a hollow cathode discharge in the cavity to form hollow cathode discharge effluents from the gas. The hollow cathode discharge effluents may then be flowed to the processing region through a plurality of apertures defined by electrically grounded electrode. The method may then include reacting the hollow cathode discharge effluents with the semiconductor substrate in the processing region.