In exemplary implementations, this invention comprises apparatus for retinal self-imaging. Visual stimuli help the user self-align his eye with a camera. Bi-ocular coupling induces the test eye to rotate into different positions. As the test eye rotates, a video is captured of different areas of the retina. Computational photography methods process this video into a mosaiced image of a large area of the retina. An LED is pressed against the skin near the eye, to provide indirect, diffuse illumination of the retina. The camera has a wide field of view, and can image part of the retina even when the eye is off-axis (when the eye's pupillary axis and camera's optical axis are not aligned). Alternately, the retina is illuminated directly through the pupil, and different parts of a large lens are used to image different parts of the retina. Alternately, a plenoptic camera is used for retinal imaging.