Methods and apparatus for rich image capture using focused plenoptic camera technology. A radiance camera employs focused plenoptic camera technology and includes sets of modulating elements that may be used to modulate the sampling of different aspects of the range of plenoptic data. The radiance camera, via the modulating elements, may capture a particular property of light, such as luminance, color, polarization, etc., differently in different microimages or in different portions of microimages. With the focused plenoptic camera technology, the microimages are captured at the same time in a single image. Thus, multiple microimages of the same image of a scene may be captured at different exposures, different colors, different polarities, and so on, in a single image at the same time. Captured images may be used, for example, in High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging, spectral imaging, polarization imaging, 3D imaging, and other imaging applications.