08261823 is referenced by 60 patents and cites 19 patents.

A system and method for producing hydrocarbons in situ from an oil shale, fixed bed hydrocarbon formation disposed below a ground surface and having a naturally occurring, water-flow leached, higher permeability zone next to a lower permeability zone. The system includes at least one injection opening and at least one production opening in the naturally occurring, water-flow leached, higher permeability zone. A heated thermal-energy carrier fluid is injected into the injection opening and circulated horizontally through the higher permeability zone. The carrier fluid pyrolyzes the hydrocarbons in the lower and higher permeability zones in situ by heating the higher permeability zone and the adjacent lower permeability zone along an interface extending substantially between from the injection opening and the production opening and produces at least a portion of the mobilized hydrocarbons by flowing the carrier fluid with the pyrolyzed hydrocarbons through the production opening to the ground surface.

Title
Integrated in situ retorting and refining of oil shale
Application Number
13/68423
Publication Number
8261823 (B1)
Application Date
May 11, 2011
Publication Date
September 11, 2012
Inventor
Joseph A Affholter
Coleman
MI, US
Gilman A Hill
Englewood
CO, US
Agent
Ramon L Pizarro
Edwin H Crabtree
IPC
E21B 43/24
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