07620451 is referenced by 319 patents and cites 456 patents.

Methods and apparatus are provided for pulsed electric field neuromodulation via an intra-to-extravascular approach, e.g., to effectuate irreversible electroporation or electrofusion, necrosis and/or inducement of apoptosis, alteration of gene expression, changes in cytokine upregulation and other conditions in target neural fibers. In some embodiments, the ITEV PEF system comprises an intravascular catheter having one or more electrodes configured for intra-to-extravascular placement across a wall of patient's vessel into proximity with target neural fibers. With the electrode(s) passing from an intravascular position to an extravascular position prior to delivery of the PEF, a magnitude of applied voltage or energy delivered via the electrode(s) and necessary to achieve desired neuromodulation may be reduced relative to an intravascular PEF system having one or more electrodes positioned solely intravascularly. The methods and apparatus of the present invention may, for example, be used to modulate one or more target neural fibers that contribute to renal function.

Title
Methods and apparatus for pulsed electric field neuromodulation via an intra-to-extravascular approach
Application Number
11/363867
Publication Number
7620451 (B2)
Application Date
February 27, 2006
Publication Date
November 17, 2009
Inventor
Hanson Gifford III
Woodside
CA, US
Erik Thai
San Jose
CA, US
Nicolas Zadno
Fremont
CA, US
Benjamin J Clark
Redwood City
CA, US
Denise Demarais
Los Gatos
CA, US
Agent
Perkins Coie
Assignee
Ardian
CA, US
IPC
A61N 1/32
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