A microfluidic device for analyzing and/or sorting biological materials (e.g., molecules such as polynucleotides and polypeptides, including proteins and enzymes; viruses and cells) and methods for its use are provided. The device and methods of the invention are useful for sorting particles, e.g. virions. The invention is also useful for high throughput screening, e.g. combinatorial screening. The microfluidic device comprises a main channel and an inlet region in communication with the main channel at a droplet extrusion region. Droplets of solution containing the biological material are deposited into the main channel through the droplet extrusion region. A fluid different from and incompatible with the solution containing the biological material flows through the main channel so that the droplets containing the biological material do not diffuse or mix. Biological material within the droplets can be analyzed and/or sorted by detecting a predetermined characteristic of the biological sample in each droplet and sorting the droplet accordingly.