Apparatus and techniques to address the problems associated with lead migration, patient movement or position, histological changes, neural plasticity or disease progression. Disclosed are techniques for implanting a lead having therapy delivery elements, such as electrodes or drug delivery ports, within a vertebral or cranial bone so as to maintain these elements in a fixed position relative to a desired treatment site. The therapy delivery elements may thereafter be adjusted in situ with a position control mechanism and/or a position controller to improve the desired treatment, such as_electrical stimulation and/or drug infusion to a precise target. The therapy delivery elements may be positioned laterally in any direction relative to the targeted treatment site or toward or away from the targeted treatment site. A control system maybe provided for open- or closed-loop feedback control of the position of the therapy delivery elements as well as other aspects of the treatment therapy.