In a lithographic projection apparatus, a space between an optical element is filled with a first fluid and a second fluid separated by a transparent plate. The first and second fluids have first and second indices of refraction, respectively, that are different from one another. The first fluid is provided between a substrate and the transparent plate and has an index of refraction similar to the index of refraction of the substrate. The second fluid is provided between the transparent plate and the optical element and has an index of refraction similar to the index of refraction of the optical element. The transparent plate has a third index of refraction between the first and second indices of refraction and may be equal to the first index of refraction or the second index of refraction. A device manufacturing method includes filling a space between the optical element and the substrate with at least two fluids having different indices of refraction.