A firearm laser training system according to the present invention includes a laser transmitter assembly and a cartridge adapter assembly, while employing modified blank cartridges to simulate firearm operation. The modified blank cartridges each have a quantity of explosive substance sufficient only to cycle the firearm. The laser assembly is configured for attachment to a firearm barrel and front sight and emits a beam of laser light toward a training system target in response to actuation of the firearm trigger. The laser beam is generally in the form of a pulse having a duration sufficient for the system target to detect a beam impact location. The cartridge assembly is disposed within the firearm barrel to adapt the firearm for compatibility with the modified blank cartridges for simulating firearm operation.