A stator includes first and second piezoelectric elements, a flexible aluminum-based connective arrangement and upper and lower aluminum-based metal blocks. The flexible aluminum-based connective arrangement includes first to fourth aluminum-based electrodes, which apply a voltage to the piezoelectric elements to generate a vibration. Each aluminum-based electrode is made of one of aluminum and an aluminum alloy and directly contacts a corresponding one of axial ends of the piezoelectric elements. Each aluminum-based metal block is made of one of aluminum and an aluminum alloy. The piezoelectric elements and the aluminum-based electrodes are interposed between the aluminum-based metal blocks.