06555945 is referenced by 111 patents and cites 2 patents.

Actuators are described that operate as a result of double-layer charge injection in electrodes having very high gravimetric surface areas and gravimetric capacitances. The actuator output of the actuators may be a mechanical displacement that can be used to accomplish mechanical work. As a result of the non-faradaic process and the actuator materials utilized, such as carbon nanotubes, the actuators have improved work capacity, power density, cycle life, and force generation capabilities. Other benefits include low voltage operation and high temperature performance. The actuators also convert a mechanical energy input to an electrical energy output. The actuators may be used to control either thermal, electrical or fluid transport or cause either the switching, phase shift, or attenuation of electromagnetic radiation.

Title
Actuators using double-layer charging of high surface area materials
Application Number
9/379132
Publication Number
6555945 (B1)
Application Date
August 20, 1999
Publication Date
April 29, 2003
Inventor
Anvar Zakhidov
Randolph
NJ, US
Zafar Iqbal
Morristown
NJ, US
Ji Su
Highland Park
NJ, US
Changxing Cui
Whippany
NJ, US
Ray H Baughman
Morris Plains
NJ, US
Agent
Larry J Palguta
US
Assignee
AlliedSignal
NJ, US
IPC
G02B 6/26
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