06475661 is referenced by 67 patents.

A redox flow battery composed of a plurality of cells in electrical series defined by a stacked and repetitive arrangement of a conductive intercell separator having a generally bipolar function, a positive electrode, an ion exchange membrane, a negative electrode and another conductive intercell separator, is operated by flowing a positive half-cell electrolyte containing reducible and oxidizable ions of a first redox couple through the compartments containing the positive electrodes and a negative half-cell electrolyte containing reducible and oxidizable ions of a second redox couple through the compartments containing the negative electrodes in cascade in a counter or equi-current mode. The difference of cell voltage between the first and the last cell of the stack is sensibly reduced and by-pass currents are substantially eliminated thus resulting in an increased overall faradic efficiency. A cell stack architecture provided with ducting for implementing the two counter current cascaded flows of the positive and negative electrolytes is described. The alternated used of cationic and anionic membranes compensate for unbalanced water transport through the membranes.

Title
Redox flow battery system and cell stack
Application Number
9/463624
Publication Number
6475661 (B1)
Application Date
April 24, 2000
Publication Date
November 5, 2002
Inventor
Barry Michael Broman
Kirkland
WA, US
Alberto Pellegri
Germignaga
US
Agent
Connoll Bove Lodge & Hutz
US
Agent
Larry J Hume
US
Assignee
Squirrel Holdings
US
IPC
H01M 4/36
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