A first embodiment microneedle array is constructed of silicon and silicon dioxide compounds using MEMS technology and standard microfabrication techniques to create hollow cylindrical individual microneedles. The resulting array of microneedles can penetrate with a small pressure through the stratum corneum of skin to either deliver drugs or to facilitate interstitial fluid sampling through the hollow microneedles into the epidermis. The delivery of drugs and sampling of fluids can be performed by way of passive diffusion (time release), instantaneous injection, or iontophoresis. In a second embodiment, an array of hollow (or solid) microneedles is constructed of plastic or some other type of molded or cast material. An electric field may be used to increase transdermal flow rate, and the microneedles can be effectively combined with the application of an electric field between an anode and cathode attached to the skin which causes a low-level electric current. As a drug delivery system, the microneedle array includes electrodes that apply an electric potential to the skin between the electrode locations. One of the electrode assemblies is filled with an ionized drug, and the charged drug molecules move into the body due to the applied electric potential. As a body-fluid sampling system, the microneedle array also includes electrodes to assist in moving fluid from the body into a receiving chamber, and which further includes a bioelectrochemical sensor to measure the concentration of a particular substance.