A measurement device is provided that determines fluid properties from vibration frequencies of a sample cavity and a reference cavity. In one embodiment, the measurement device includes a sample flow tube, a reference flow tube, vibration sources and detectors mounted on the tubes, and a measurement module. The sample flow tube receives a flow of sample fluid for characterization. The reference flow tube is filled with a reference fluid having well-characterized properties. The measurement module employs the vibration sources to generate vibrations in both tubes. The measurement module combines the signals from the vibration detectors on the tubes to determine properties of the sample fluid, such as density, viscosity, compressibility, water fraction, and bubble size. The measurement module may further detect certain flow patterns such as slug flow, for example. To measure the sample fluid density, the measurement module determines the difference between resonance frequencies of the sample flow tube and the reference flow tube. The density can then be calculated according to a formula. Other fluid properties may be determined from the sample tube's resonance peak amplitude, peak width and/or peak shape. Variation of the density measurements may be used to detect and characterize multiple phase fluid flow. The use of a reference tube in the disclosed measurement device is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and reliability of the measurement device over a range of temperatures, pressures, and shock accelerations such as those that may be found downhole in a well.