A mixture of chromatographic particles and a solution of water, alcohol and metal alkoxide may be injected by means of a syringe into a capillary column as a gel. The volatile components in the gel are evaporated by means of heating and gas pressure reduction to form a porous sol-gel glass matrix attached to the inner wall of the separation channel. The pores are large enough for the passage of protons, neutral and ionic species but are too small to permit significant leaching of the chromatographic particles. The separation column so formed requires no frits to maintain the glass matrix in place in the column. Electrical potential difference and/or pressure difference may be applied to cause fluid flow in the separation column to cause electrophoretic and chromatographic separation.