A retractor for use in arthroscopic surgery. The retractor has a mechanical expanding portion for expanding against sub-surface tissues when the retractor is in use. The retractor also has a fluid-operated expanding portion, which may be independently controllable, for expanding against sub-surface tissues when the retractor is in use. The retractor is inserted through a small percutaneous opening, expanded in sub-surface tissues without significantly damaging the tissue, then collapsed after use for removal. The retractor can be manipulated to allow the surgeon to push or pull or lever on tissue. The retractor can be hollow like a cannula to permit the passage of one or more surgical devices through the retractor, with a side portal into the center of the retractor.