A microwave monolithic integrated circuit includes a coplanar waveguide (CPW) formed by a composite silicon structure constituted by a relatively high resistivity substrate, a first oxide layer on the upper surface thereof, a relatively thin silicon layer formed on the surface of the first oxide layer, and a very thin second oxide layer formed on the surface of the thin silicon layer. The silicon layer and the first oxide layer on which it is formed constitutes a silicon-on-insulator or SOI structure. A metallic signal line and ground planes are bonded to the surface of the second oxide layer. The zone of the thin silicon layer which extends between the ground planes is doped with an active impurity to produce high conductivity therein. As a result, the electric component of a quasi-TEM wave traversing the waveguide is substantially restricted to the thin silicon layer and does not penetrate to the underlying bulk silicon substrate. This achieves significantly reduced transmission loss and a quality factor Q in the vicinity of 17 for the CPW. Passive and active circuits may be formed in regions of the thin silicon layer other than those used for the CPW.