Reflected imaging is used to perform non-invasive, in vivo analysis of a subject's vascular system. A raw reflected image is normalized with respect to the background to form a corrected reflected image. An analysis image is segmented from the corrected reflected image to include a scene of interest for analysis. The method and apparatus can be used to determine such characteristics as the hemoglobin concentration per unit volume of blood, the number of white blood cells per unit volume of blood, a mean cell volume, the number of platelets per unit volume of blood, and the hematocrit. Cross-polarizers can be used to improve visualization of the reflected image.