The invention provides surgical resection instruments, and methods of use, for facilitating accurately cut surfaces for the placement of femoral prosthesis components. The posterior condyles and anterior femoral cortex provide reference points for measurement and cuts of the femur with these instruments. One embodiment of the femoral resection instrument provides for precise anterior cuts of the femur appropriate for one of several sizes of prosthesis components without the need for separate cutting guides. Another embodiment provides for shifting the cutting location of both the posterior and anterior cuts by a portion of the distance between sizes of the prosthesis components while maintaining the reference position relative to the posterior part of the condyles and corresponding intercondylar notch. A third embodiment has an adjustable paddle so that the femoral resection instrument can be adjusted to the correct orientation when the femoral condyles are worn unequally. These various features may be combined, as desired. The invention includes related methods.