A stromal cell-based three-dimensional cell culture system is provided which can be used to culture a variety of different cells and tissues in vitro for prolonged periods of time. The stromal cells along with connective tissue proteins naturally secreted by the stromal cells attach to and substantially envelope a framework composed of a biocompatible non-living material formed into a three-dimensional structure having interstitial spaces bridged by the stromal cells. Living stromal tissue so formed provides support, growth factors, and regulatory factors necessary to sustain long-term active proliferation of cells in culture and/or cultures implanted in vivo. When grown in this three-dimensional system, the proliferating cells mature and segregate properly to form components of adult tissues analogous to counterparts in vivo, which can be utilized in the body as a corrective tissue. The three-dimensional cultures can be used to form tubular tissue structures, like those of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, as well as blood vessels; tissues for hernia repair and/or tendons and ligaments.