05814076 is referenced by 91 patents and cites 19 patents.

The present invention provides an improved extracardiac indifferent electrode configuration for implantable medical devices that overcomes the deficiencies of known unipolar and bipolar cardiac sensing and pacing systems. In particular, the present invention provides an indifferent electrode configuration wherein a subcutaneous extracardiac electrode is advantageously positioned so as to provide a truly indifferent return or reference electrode that does not inadvertently stimulate torso muscle and is not subject to detecting myopotentials generated by adjacent torso muscle. In addition, by being placed outside the heart, the indifferent electrode allows the intracardiac catheter to maintain a low profile, i.e., allows the catheter to be as small as possible, and does not generate metallic ions or cause degradation of catheter materials by generating such ions.

Title
Apparatus for improved cardiac pacing and sensing using extracardiac indifferent electrode configurations
Application Number
8/594887
Publication Number
5814076
Application Date
February 9, 1996
Publication Date
September 29, 1998
Inventor
Robert R Brownlee
Ormond Beach
FL, US
Agent
Kerkam Stowell Kondracki & Clarke
Agent
Dennis P Clarke
Assignee
Cardiac Control Systems
FL, US
IPC
A61N 1/362
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