A self-addressable, self-assembling microelectronic device is designed and fabricated to actively carry out and control multi-step and multiplex molecular biological reactions in microscopic formats. These reactions include nucleic acid hybridization, antibody/antigen reaction, diagnostics, and biopolymer synthesis. The device can be fabricated using both microlithographic and micromachining techniques. The device can electronically control the transport and attachment of specific binding entities to specific micro-locations. The specific binding entities include molecular biological molecules such as nucleic acids and polypeptides. The device can subsequently control the transport and reaction of analytes or reactants at the addressed specific microlocations. The device is able to concentrate analytes and reactants, remove non-specifically bound molecules, provide stringency control for DNA hybridization reactions, and improve the detection of analytes. The device can be electronically replicated.