A trench MOS Schottky barrier rectifier includes a semiconductor substrate having first and second faces, a cathode region of first conductivity type at the first face and a drift region of first conductivity type on the cathode region, extending to the second face. First and second trenches are formed in the drift region at the second face and define a mesa of first conductivity type therebetween. The mesa can be rectangular or circular in shape or of stripe geometry. Insulating regions are defined on the sidewalls of the trenches, adjacent the mesa, and an anode electrode is formed on the insulating regions, and on the top of the mesa at the second face. The anode electrode forms a Schottky rectifying contact with the mesa. The magnitude of reverse-biased leakage currents in the mesa and the susceptibility to reverse breakdown are limited not only by the potential barrier formed by the rectifying contact but also by the potential difference between the mesa and the portion of anode electrode extending along the insulating regions. Moreover, by properly choosing the width of the mesa, and by doping the mesa to a concentration greater than about 1.times.10.sup.16 per cubic centimeters, reverse blocking voltages greater than those of a corresponding parallel-plane P-N junction rectifier can be achieved.