A translation look-aside buffer is implemented utilizing a four-way set associative cache memory having four lines of 16 sets each. A virtual address tag and its corresponding physical address tag, as well as a number of status bits which control the type of access permitted for a given virtual address, are stored in the translation look-aside buffer. A portion of the inputted virtual address signal is used to provide a virtual address tag and is compared to the virtual address tag in the buffer memory. When the virtual address tag comparison is achieved, the physical address tags are provided as an output from the translation look-aside buffer. Also at the same time, a fault detection circuit performs various fault detection logic on the status bits, depending on the execution cycle being performed, such as read/write cycle or user/supervisor mode. If a hit occurs with one of the stored virtual address tags, its physical address tag is used, but only if a fault indication does not occur thereby generating a trap. The comparison of the virtual address tags, the generation of the physical address tag and checking of the status bits for fault detection is performed simultaneously in parallel so that only one clock cycle is needed to generate a physical address tag and a fault signal, if any, from the address translation look-aside buffer.