05233985 is referenced by 149 patents and cites 18 patents.

A medical electrical stimulator employing an operational amplifier output circuit for producing an electrical stimulating pulse for application to body tissue and for sensing electrical activity in the body tissue. A first input to the operational amplifier is coupled through a virtual load to a probe electrode in close proximity to the body tissue. The second input is coupled to a second electrode which may be remote from the tissue to be stimulated. A defined voltage signal may be provided to the second input to the amplifier, and the amplifier correspondingly delivers current through the virtual load to the probe electrode as the amplifier maintains equal voltage levels at its two inputs. The current delivered to the probe electrode functions to stimulate the body tissue. By varying the defined voltage signals provided to the second input of the amplifier, arbitrary stimulation pulse waveforms may be generated. After termination of the defined voltage signal, the amplifier functions to restore the electrode/tissue system to its previous electrical equilibrium condition and to sense induced or spontaneous electrical activity in the tissue. The circuit may be employed in cardiac pacemakers, with the probe electrode located on or in the heart, or in other electrical medical stimulators.

Cardiac pacemaker with operational amplifier output circuit
Application Number
Publication Number
Application Date
July 15, 1991
Publication Date
August 10, 1993
Terrence R Hudrlik
Harold R Patton
Reed A Duthler
A61N 1/362
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