Muscle exercise and diagnostic apparatus with an output shaft, a servo motor coupled in driving relation to the output shaft, and a support mechanism for mounting the output shaft and the servo motor in a selectable stationary position. A plurality of work simulation tools and coupling arrangements are provided, including coupling arrangements on the output shaft and each of the tools for removably coupling one of the tools to the output shaft. A composite output shaft with a larger diameter, high torque section and a smaller diameter, low torque section, each with its own separate torque measuring strain gauge arrangement is provided. A shaft position sensor senses the angular position of the output shaft and produces an output shaft position signal. A servo control circuit responds to a preselected command signal measuring device for measuring a preselected servo control signal parameter associated with the servo motor and shaft and operatively related to the command signal. Exercise control circuitry coupled to the servo circuit and receiving the output shaft position signal and the torque signal controls the servo motor and shaft in accordance with a preselected exercise control algorithm.