In apparatus useful in immunoassay of a fluid, light is directed to an optical sensor wherein the light is transmitted to a replaceable optical device that is responsive to index of refraction in a sensing region thereof that is exposed to the fluid. One portion of the light is transmitted via a reference path to a first detector. Another portion of the light is transmitted via a sensing path that includes the sensing region to another detector. A ratioing device receives an output from each detector and provides a signal responsive to the ratio of the outputs. The replaceable optical device typically comprises a pair of channel waveguides in directional coupling arrangement, or a pair of channel waveguides in an interferometer arrangement, or a ridge waveguide having a serpentine path.