05086401 is referenced by 668 patents and cites 15 patents.

A robotic surgical system (10) includes a multiple degree of freedom manipulator arm (14) having a surgical tool (22). The arm is coupled to a controller (24) for controllably positioning the surgical tool within a three dimensional coordinate system. The system further includes a safety monitoring processor (38) for determining the position of the surgical tool in the three dimensional coordinate system relative to a volumetric model. The volumetric model may be represented as a constructive solid geometry (CSG) tree data structure. The system further includes an optical tracking camera system (28, 32) disposed for imaging a region of space that includes at least a portion of the manipulator arm. An output of the camera system is coupled to the processor (38) that processes the volumetric model for determining if the surgical tool is positioned outside of the volumetric model. The system further includes a strain gage (40) for detecting slippage in three dimensions between an immobilized tissue, such as bone, and a reference point (44). The system also includes multiple and redundant safety features for suspending a motion of the surgical tool to prevent the tool from operating outside of the predetermined volume of space.

Title
Image-directed robotic system for precise robotic surgery including redundant consistency checking
Application Number
7/523611
Publication Number
5086401
Application Date
May 11, 1990
Publication Date
February 4, 1992
Inventor
Russell H Taylor
Ossining
NY, US
Howard A Paul
Loomis
CA, US
Bela L Musits
Hopewell Junction
NY, US
Brent D Mittelstadt
Placerville
CA, US
Peter Kazanzides
Davis
CA, US
William A Hanson
Mountain View
CA, US
Edward Glassman
New York
NY, US
Agent
Perman & Green
Assignee
International Business Machines Corporation
NY, US
IPC
A61B 17/56
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