Methods and artificial matrices for the growth and implantation of cartilaginous structures and surfaces are disclosed. In the preferred embodiments, chondrocytes are grown on biodegradable, biocompatible fibrous polymeric matrices. Optionally, the cells are proliferated in vitro until an adequate cell volume and density has developed for the cells to survive and proliferate in vivo. One advantage of the matrices is that they can be cast or molded into a desired shape, on an individual basis, so that the final product closely resembles a patient's own ear or nose. Alternatively, flexible matrices can be used which can be manipulated at the time of implantation, as in a joint, followed by remodeling through cell growth and proliferation in vivo. The cultured cells can also be maintained on the matrix in a nutrient media for production of bioactive molecules such as angiogenesis inhibiting factor.